Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)
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Describer (Date): Linnaeus 1758
Species: Ursus arctos
Head/Body Length (Males & Females):
Shoulder Height: up to 1.5 m (5 ft)
Tail Length: 60-200 mm (2-8 in)
Pelage: Pale tan, blond, gold, many shades of brown to black, gray or silver; grizzly's guard hairs pale at tips.
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Range: Europe, Middle East, Asia, northwestern U.S., western Canada
Habitat: Widest variety of habitats of any bear species; dry asian steppes, temperate forests; sea level to 5,000 m (16,404 ft)
IUCN Status: Least Concern (2016 assessment)
Population in Wild: More than 200,000
Locomotion: Normal gait - slow shuffle; walk 5.5-6 km/hr; gallop 56 km/hr (35 mp/h)
Activity Cycle: Diurnal in North America (but active day and night when food scarce); largely nocturnal in Europe; in cold climates undergo winter dormancy.
Social Groups: Lasting bonds only between female and young.
Diet: Wide variety of plants and animals; diet more carnivorous than that of American and Asiatic black bears.
Predators: Mainly humans; rare attacks in Siberia by tigers.
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
Sexual: Female - 3.5 yrs; first cubs 4-8 yrs; Male - about 5.5 yrs.
Gestation: 6-7 months
Litter Size: 2 - 3 common; up to 4
Birth weight: 400-500 g (14-18 oz)
Age at Weaning: 1.5-2.5 years
Longevity: About 25 years
Feature: Rely on wide variety of seasonally available plant and animal food items: berries, pine seeds, grasses, roots, tubers, honey, ants, moths, small rodents, calves of moose, muskoxen, caribou, elk, and salmon.
San Diego Zoo: In a new enrichment strategy as of 2010, exhibit spaces have been conncected for two young grizzly bears and an elderly Manchurian brown bear at the San Diego Zoo. The bears can now take turns using the whole area; this intelligent and highly curious species benefits greatly from added activities and a chance to smell tracks left by other bears.
© 2010-2015 San Diego Zoo Global. Updated 2015.
How to cite: Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) Fact Sheet. c2010-2015. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ brownbear.
(Note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Jan 15)
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