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A selection of animal welfare information resources at the San Diego Zoo Global Library and online.
Last Updated: Aug 16, 2016 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

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jaguar savors brain-shaped bloodsicle at the San Diego Zoo

Nindiri, a jaguar at the San Diego Zoo, savors a delectable brain-shaped bloodsicle treat. ©San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.

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San Diego Zoo Global staff may contact us to request articles from publications that are not directly available online or through the SDZG Library.


Animal Welfare Science

Broom DM. 1988. The scientific assessment of animal welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 20(1), 5-19. DOI: 10.1016/0168-1591(88)90122-0

Dawkins MS. 1990. From an animal's point of view: motivation, fitness, and animal welfare. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:1-9. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X00077104

Dawkins MS. 2004. Using behaviour to assess animal welfare. Animal Welfare 13:S3-S8. Available at:

Dawkins MS. 2006. A user's guide to animal welfare science. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21(2):77-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2005.10.017

Dawkins MS. 2008. The science of animal suffering. Ethology 114(10):937-945. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2008.01557.x

Fraser D. 2008. Understanding animal welfare. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 50(Suppl 1):S1. DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-50-S1-S1

Fraser D. 2009. Assessing animal welfare: different philosophies, different scientific approaches. Zoo Biology 28(6):507-518. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20253

Fraser D, Weary DM, Pajor EA, Milligan BN. 1997. A scientific conception of animal welfare that reflects ethical concerns. Animal welfare 6:187-205. Available at:


Zoo Animal Welfare

Barber JCE. 2009. Programmatic approaches to assessing and improving animal welfare in zoos and aquariums. Zoo Biology 28(6):519-530. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20260

Bassett L, Buchanan-Smith HM. 2007. Effects of predictability on the welfare of captive animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3–4):223-245. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.029

Davey G. 2007. Visitors' effects on the welfare of animals in the zoo: a review. Journal Of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(2):169-183. DOI: 10.1080/10888700701313595

Hill SP, Broom DM. 2009. Measuring zoo animal welfare: theory and practice. Zoo Biology 28(6):531-544. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20276

Koene P. 2013. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 16(4):360-380. DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2013.827917

Maple TL. 2007. Toward a science of welfare for animals in the zoo. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1):63-70. DOI: 10.1080/10888700701277659

Siegford J. 2013. Multidisciplinary approaches and assessment techniques to better understand and enhance zoo nonhuman animal welfare. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 16(4):300-318. DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2013.827914

Whitham JC, Wielebnowski N. 2013. New directions for zoo animal welfare science. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 147(3/4):247-260. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2013.02.004


Environmental Enrichment

Carlstead K, Seidensticker J, Baldwin R. 1991. Environmental enrichment for zoo bears. Zoo Biology 10(1):3-16. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.1430100103

Carlstead K, Shepherdson D. 1994. Effects of environmental enrichment on reproduction. Zoo Biology 13(5):447-458. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.1430130507

Claxton, A. M. 2011. The potential of the human–animal relationship as an environmental enrichment for the welfare of zoo-housed animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133(1/2):1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.03.002

Hoy JM, Murray PJ, Tribe A. 2010. Thirty years later: enrichment practices for captive mammals. Zoo Biology 29(3):303-316. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20254

Mason G, Clubb R, Latham N, Vickery S. 2007. Why and how should we use environment enrichment to tackle stereotypic behaviour? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3/4):163-188. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.041

Meehan CL, Mench JA. 2007. The challenge of challenge: can problem solving opportunities enhance animal welfare? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3–4):246-261. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.031

Newberry, R. C. 1995. Environmental enrichment: increasing the biological relevance of captive environments. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 44(2), 229-243. DOI: 10.1016/0168-1591(95)00616-Z

Shyne, A. 2006. Meta‐analytic review of the effects of enrichment on stereotypic behavior in zoo mammals. Zoo Biology, 25(4), 317-337. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20091

Swaisgood RR, Shepherdson DJ. 2005. Scientific approaches to enrichment and stereotypies in zoo animals: what's been done and where should we go next? Zoo Biology 24(6):499-518. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20066

Tarou LR, Bashaw MJ. 2007. Maximizing the effectiveness of environmental enrichment: suggestions from the experimental analysis of behavior. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3–4):189-204. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.026

Wells DL. 2009. Sensory stimulation as environmental enrichment for captive animals: a review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118(1–2):1-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2009.01.002


Wild Animal Welfare

Paquet PC, Darimont CT. 2010. Wildlife conservation and animal welfare: two sides of the same coin? Animal Welfare 19(2):177-190. Available at:

Sikes RS, Gannon WL. 2011. Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research. Journal of Mammalogy 92(1):235-253. DOI: 10.1644/10-MAMM-F-355.1


What Is Animal Welfare Science?

 Fraser D. 2008. Understanding animal welfare. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 50(Suppl 1):S1.

 Dawkins MS. 2006. A user's guide to animal welfare science. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21(2):77-82.


Special Journal Issues

Cover image New Zealand Veterinary Journal

Feature Series: Animal welfare: current issues and recent developments

New Zealand Veterinary Journal 63(1): 1-65 (January 2015)


Cover image Applied Animal Behaviour Science

Special Issue: Welfare of Zoo Animals

Applied Animal Behaviour Science 147(3–4): 245-334 (January 2015)


Cover image Zoo Biology

Special Issue: Zoo Animal Welfare

Zoo Biology 28(6): 501–651 (November/ December 2009)


Cover image Applied Animal Behaviour Science

Special Issue: Conservation, enrichment and animal behaviour

Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 139-452 (February 2007)

SDZG Insider

SDZG staff can find a variety of useful resources in the Animal Welfare and Enrichment pages on SDZG's intranet portal, the Insider. Note: access is restricted to networked computers.

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