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Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) Fact Sheet: Bibliography

Bibliography

Amato, G.D., M. Ashley, and J. Gatesy. 1993. Molecular evolution in living species of rhinoceros: implications for conservation. In: O.A. Ryder ed., Rhinoceros Biology and Conservation, pp. 114-122.  Proceedings of the International Rhino Conference, May 9-11, 1991. San Diego: Zoological Society of San Diego.

Ashley, M.V., D.J. Melnick, and D. Western.  1990. Conservation genetics of the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), I: Evidence from the mitochondrial DNA of three populations. Conservation Biology 4(1):71-77.

Aubery, L. (Chairman). 2001. Proceedings of the Rhino Keepers' Workshop, May 7-10, 2001. San Diego: Zoological Society of San Diego.

Berger, J. 1994. Science, conservation and black rhinos. Journal of Mammalogy, 75(2):298-308.

Bertschinger, H.J.  1995. Reproduction in black and white rhinos: a review. In: B.L. Penzhorn, and N.P.J. Kriek eds. Proceedings of a Symposium on Rhinos as Game Ranch Animals, 9-10 September, 1994, pp. 155-161. Onderstepoort, South Africa: Wildlife Group, South African Veterinary Association.

Brown, S.M., and B.A. Houlden. 2000. Conservation genetics of the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Conservation Genetics 1: 365-370.

Conway, A.J. and P.S. Goodman. 1989. Population characteristics and management of black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis minor and white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum simum in Ndumu Game Reserve, South Africa. Biological Conservation, 47: 109-122.

Cooke, H.B.S. 1972. The fossil mammal fauna of Africa. In: Keast, A., F.C. Erk, and B. Class, eds. Evolution, mammals and southern continents. Albany, New York: State University of New York. pp. 89-139.

du Toit, R. 1987. The existing basis for subspecies classification of black and white rhinos. Pachyderm, 9:3-5.

Emslie  2002. African rhino numbers continue to increase. Pachyderm 33:103-107.

Emslie  2011. Diceros bicornis ssp. bicornis. The IUCN red list of threatened species [internet]. Version 2019.1; e.T39318A10197840 [species assessed 2011 Aug 05; page accessed 2019 Jun 25]. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T39318A10197840.en. 

Emslie  2011. Diceros bicornis ssp. longipes. The IUCN red list of threatened species [internet]. Version 2019.1; e.T39319A10198340 [species assessed 2011 Aug 05; page accessed 2019 Jun 25]. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T39319A10198340.en.

Emslie  2011. Diceros bicornis ssp. michaeli. The IUCN red list of threatened species [internet]. Version 2019.1;  e.T39320A10198874 [species assessed 2011 Aug 05; page accessed 2019 Jun 25].  http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T39320A10198874.en.

Emslie  2012. Diceros bicornis. The  IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018-2;  e.T6557A16980917 [species assessed 2011 Aug 06; page accessed 2018 Dec 04]. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en.

Emslie, R. and Brooks, M. (compilers) 1999. African Rhino Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC African Rhino Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Emslie , Milliken , Talukdar , Ellis , Adcock , Knight  2016. African and Asian rhinoceroses - status, conservation and trade: a report from the IUCN Species Survival Commission (IUCN SCC) African and Asian Rhino Specialist Groups and TRAFFIC to the CITES Secretartiat pursuant to Resolution Conf. 9.14 (Rev. CoP15). Cambridge (UK): International Union for Conservation of Nature. [accessed 26 Sep 2018].  https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/cop/17/WorkingDocs/E-CoP17-68-A5.pdf.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. Berkeley: University of California Press.

George, M., L.G. Chemnick, D. Cisova, E. Gabrisova, A. Straril, and O.A. Ryder. 1993. Genetic differentiation of white rhinoceros subspecies: diagnostic differences in mitochondrial DNA and serum proteins. In: O.A. Ryder, ed. Rhinoceros Biology and Conservation. San Diego, CA: Zoological Society of San Diego. pp. 105-113.

Goddard, J. 1966. Mating and courtship of the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis L.). East African Wildlife Journal, 4:69-75.

Goddard, J. 1967. Home range, behavior, and recruitment rates of two black rhinoceros populations. East African Wildlife Journal, 5: 133-150.

Goddard, J. 1970. Food preferences of black rhinoceros in the Tsavo National Park. East African Wildlife Journal, 8:145-162.

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Harley, E.H., I. Baumgarten, J. Cunningham, and C. O'Ryan. 2005. Genetic variation and population structure in remnant populations of black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, in Africa. Molecular Ecology, 14(10):2981-2990.

Hillman-Smith, A.K.K., and C.P. Groves. 1994. Diceros bicornis. Mammalian Species, No. 455, pp. 1-8.

IRF. 2002. International Rhino Foundation website. <http://rhinos.org>. Visited September 21, 2003.

Jewell, Z.C., S.K. Alibhai, and P.R. Law.  2001. Censusing and monitoring black rhino (Diceros bicornis) using an objective spoor (footprint) identification technique. Journal of Zoology, 254:1-16.

Jones, M. 1991. "And then there were none": Saving the rhino. Zoonooz, 64(5): 6-12.

Killmar, L. 1990. Critical balance: captive population strategies for the next 200 years. ZooNooz, 63(3): 8-13.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. San Diego: Academic Press.

Kuzmin, Y.A. Extinction of the wooly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and rhinosceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) in Eurasia: Review of chronological and environmental issues. Boreas 39:247-261. http://www.rhinoresourcecenter.com/pdf_files/128/1280538062.pdf

Lacombat, F. 2005. The evolution of the rhinoceros. In: Fulconis, R. Save the rhinos: EAZA Rhino Campaign 2005/6 info pack. London: Save the Rhinos. pp. 46-49.

Leader-Williams, N. 1992. The World Trade in Rhino Horn: A Review. Cambridge, UK: Traffic International.

McKeever, M. 2000. Rhinos: ambassadors from another age. ZooNooz  73(10):8-14.

Meltzer, D.G.A. 1995. Diseases in free-ranging black and white rhinoceroses.

Merz, A. 1991. Rhino: at the Brink of Extinction. London: Harper Collins Publishers. In: B.L. Penzhorn and N.P.J. Kriek eds. Proceedings of a Symposium on Rhinos as Game Ranch Animals, 9-10 September, 1994, pp. 176-179. Onderstepoort, South Africa: Wildlife Group, South African Veterinary Association.

Muya, S.M., and N.O. Oguge.  2000. Effects of browse availability and quality on black rhino (Diceros bicornis michaeli Groves 1967) diet in Nairobi National Park, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, 38:62-71.

Oloo, T.W., R. Brett, and T.P. Young. 1994. Seasonal variation in the feeding ecology of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis L.) in Laikipia Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, 32: 142-157.

O'Ryan, C., and E.H. Harley. 1993. Comparisons of mitochondrial DNA in black and white rhinoceroses. Journal of Mammalogy, 74(2):343-346.

Owen-Smith, R.N. 1973. The Behavioural Ecology of the White Rhinoceros. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Wisconsin. 863 pp.

Owen-Smith, R.N. 1975. The social ethology of the white rhinoceros. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 38:337-384.

Penzhorn, B.L. et al. 1995. Parasites of African rhinos: a documentation.  In: B.L. Penzhorn and N.P.J. Kriek eds. Proceedings of a Symposium on Rhinos as Game Ranch Animals, 9-10 September, 1994, pp. 168-175. Onderstepoort, South Africa: Wildlife Group, South African Veterinary Association.

Pienaar, D.J. 1995. Social organization and behavior of the white rhinoceros. In: B.L. Penzhorn and N.P.J. Kriek eds. Proceedings of a Symposium on Rhinos as Game Ranch Animals, 9-10 September, 1994, pp. 87-92. Onderstepoort, South Africa: Wildlife Group, South African Veterinary Association.

Pienaar, D.J., J. P. Bothma, and G.K. Theron. 1993. White rhinoceros range size in the south-western Kruger National Park. Journal of Zoology, 229: 641-649.

Player, I.C., and J.M. Feely. 1960. A preliminary report on the square-lipped rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum simum. Lammergeyer (Natal) 1(1):3-23.

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Prothero, D.R. and Schoch R. 1989. The evolution of perissodactyls. New York: Oxford University Press.

Prothero, D.R. 1993. Fifty million years of rhinoceros evolution. In: O.A. Ryder ed. Rhinoceros  Biology and Conservation. Proceedings of the International Rhino Conference, 1991. San Diego: Zoological Society of San Diego.

Rachlow, J.L. J.G. Kie, and J. Berger. 1999. Territoriality and spatial patterns of white rhinoceros in Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecolory, 37:295-304.

Ramirez, M. 1993. Finally, a rhino birth at San Diego Zoo. ZooNooz, 66(1): 16-17.

Robinson, D. 1998. Rhino program breeds success... at San Diego's Wild Animal Park. Wildlife Conservation 101(2): 60-61.

Rookmaaker, L.C. 1995. Subspecies and ecotypes of the black rhinoceros. Pachyderm, 20:39-40.

Rookmaaker, L.C. 1998. The rhinoceros in captivity: a list of 2439 rhinoceroses kept from Roman times to 1994. The Hague, Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing.

Roth, T.L., and J.L. Brown. 1999. Is there any rhyme or reason to rhinoceros reproduction? A summary of reproductive characteristices, species-specificities and challenges for the future. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, pp. 97-99. October 9-14, 1999. Columbus, Ohio

Schenkel, R. Rhinoceroses: white rhinoceroses. In: S.P. Parker ed. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol 4, pp. 610-620. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.

Schenkel, R., and L. Schenkel-Hulliger. 1969. Ecology and Behaviour of the Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis L.): A Field Study. Hamburg: Verlag Paul Parey.

Steiner C.C., and O. A. Ryder 2011. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the Perissodactyla. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163:1289-1303.

Swaisgood, R. R. 2001. Southern White Rhino Captive Behavior. In: Proceedings of the Rhino Keepers' Workshop 2001. May 7-10, 2001. San Diego, CA.

Tatman, S.C., B. Stevens-Wood, and V.B.T. Smith. 2000. Ranging behavior and habitat usage in black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, in a Kenyan sanctuary. African Journal of Ecology, 30:163-172.

UNEP. 2018. Species+: Ciceros bicornis [online database]. Nairobi, kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2018 Dec 04]. https://speciesplus.net/#/taxon_concepts/6656/legal.

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2018. [accessed 2018 Dec 04]. https://www.species360.org/ 

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