Skip to main content
sdzglibrarybanner San Diego Zoo Global Library

Cassowary (Casuarius spp.) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources

Bibliography

Benchley BJ. Our uncaged exhibits. Mar 1945. ZOONOOZ, Vol. XVIII (No. 3); p. 5-7.

Bentrupperbäumer J. 1997. Reciprocal ecosystem impact and behavioural interactions between cassowaries, Casuarius casuarius, and humans, Homo sapiens: exploring the natural-human environment interface and its implications for endangered species recovery in north Queensland, Australia. [Townsville (Australia)]: James Cook Univeristy.

Biggs JR (ed). 2013. Captive management guidelines for the Southern Cassowary. Cairns (Australia).

Birdlife International. 2016a. Casuarius bennetti. In: IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22678111A92755192.en. [accessed 2018 Apr 24].

Birdlife International. 2016b. Casuarius casuarius. In: IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22678108A104730416.en. [accessed 2017 Jan 18].

Birdlife International. 2016c. Casuarius unappendiculatus. In: IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22678114A105771186.en. [accessed 2017 Jan 18].

Birdlife International. 2017a. Casuarius casuarius. In: IUCN 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22678108A118219400.en. [accessed 2018 Apr 24].

Birdlife International. 2017b. Casuarius unappendiculatus. In: IUCN 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22678114A118134784.en. [accessed 2018 Apr 24].

Boyles W. 1987. Alias Emu. Australian Natural History. 22:215-216.

Bradford MG, Westcott DA. 2011. Predation of cassowary dispersed seeds: is the cassowary an effective disperser? Integrative Zoology. 6(3):168-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-4877.2011.00242.x

Brodie JF, Pangau-Adam M. 2017. Human impacts on two endemic cassowary species in Indonesian New Guinea. Oryx. 51(2):354-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605315001039

Campbell HA, Dwyer RG, Fitzgibbons S, Klein CJ, Lauridsen G, McKeown A, Olsson A, Sullivan S, Watts ME, Westcott DA. 2012. Prioritising the protection of habitat utilised by Southern Cassowaries Casuarius casuarius johnsonii. Endangered Species Research. 17(1):53-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esr00397

Cassowary: San Diego Zoo Animals & Plants. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed 2017 Feb 28]. http://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/cassowary.

Coates BJ. 1985. Order Struthioniformes. The birds of Papua New Guinea, including the Bismarck Archipelago and Bougainville; Vol I, Non-passerines. Queensland (Australia): Dove Publications; p. 53-59.

Crome F. 1976. Some observations on the biology of the cassowary in Northern Queensland. Emu. 76(1):8-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MU9760008

Crome F, Bentrupperbäumer J. 1993. Special people, a special animal and a special vision: the first steps to restoring a fragmented tropical landscape. In: Saunders DA, Hobbs RJ, Ehrlich PR (eds). Nature conservation 3: Reconstruction of fragmented ecosystems: global and regional perspectives. Chipping Norton, New South Wales: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Crome F, Moore L. 1988. The cassowary's casque. Emu. 88(2):123-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MU9880123

Crome F, Moore L. 1990. Cassowaries in north-eastern Queensland - report of a survey and a review and assessment of their status and conservation and management needs. Wildlife Research. 17(4):369-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WR9900369

Davies S. 2002. Ratites and tinamous: Tinamidae, Rheidae, Dromaiidae, Casuariidae, Apterygidae, Struthionidae. New York (NY): Oxford University Press.

del Hoyo, Collar NJ, Christie DA, Elliot A, Fishpool LDC. 2014. Order Struthioniformes. In: HBW and BirdLife International illustrated checklist of the birds of the world, volume 1: non-passerines. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions; c2014. p. 56-65.

Dwyer RG, Carpenter-Bundhoo L, Franklin CE, Campbell HA. 2016. Using citizen-collected wildlife sightings to predict traffic strike hot spots for threatened species: a case study on the Southern Cassowary. Journal of Applied Ecology. 53(4):973-982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12635

Eastick DL, Tattersall GJ, Watson SJ, Lesku JA, Robert KA. Cassowary casques act as thermal windows. Scientific Reports. 9:1966. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-38780-8.

Environment protection and biodiversity conservation act 1999. Australia: Commonwealth Government Printer. https://www.environment.gov.au/epbc

Folch A, Christie DA, Jutglar F, Garcia EFJ. 2017a. Southern Cassowary (Casuarius casuarius). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions; [accessed 2017 Jan 17]. http://www.hbw.com/node/52401

Folch A, Christie DA, Jutglar F, Garcia EFJ, Sharpe CJ. 2017b. Dwarf Cassowary (Casuarius bennetti). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds). Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions; [accessed 2017 Jan 18]. http://www.hbw.com/node/52402

Folch A, Jutglar F, Garcia EFJ. 2017c. Northern Cassowary (Casuarius unappendiculatus ). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds). Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions; [accessed 2017 Jan 18]. http://www.hbw.com/node/52403

Göritz F, Hildebrandt T, Hermes R, Thielebein T, Spretke T, Göltenboth R. 1997. Immobilisation and transintestinal sonography in cassowary. Verh Ber Erkrg Zootiere. 38:181-186.

Hindwood KA. 1962. Nesting of the cassowary. Emu. 61(4):283-284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MU961283

Integrated Taxonomic Information System database (ITIS) [Internet]. [accessed 2017 Jan 18]. http://www.itis.gov

Johnson A, Bino R, Igag P. 2004. A preliminary evaluation of the sustainability of cassowary (Aves: Casuariidae) capture and trade in Papua New Guinea. Animal Conservation. 7(2):129-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1367943003001173

Johnson AH. 2000. Monitoring and evaluation of an enterprise-based strategy for wildlife conservation in the Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area (Papua New Guinea) [PhD]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Madison.

Kofron CP. 1999. Attacks to humans and domestic animals by the Southern Cassowary (Casuarius casuarius johnsonii) in Queensland, Australia. Journal of Zoology. 249(4):375-381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1999.tb01206.x

Kofron CP, Chapman A. 2006. Causes of mortality to the endangered Southern Cassowary Casuarius casuarius johnsonii in Queensland, Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology. 12(3):175-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/PC060175

Latch P. 2007. Recovery plan for the southern cassowary Casuarius casuarius johnsonii. Queensland, Australia: Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/recovery-plan-southern-cassowary-casuarius-casuarius-johnsonii

Mack AL. 1995. Distance and non‐randomness of seed dispersal by the Dwarf Cassowary Casuarius bennetti. Ecography. 18(3):286-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.1995.tb00131.x

Mack AL, Druliner G. 2003. A non-intrusive method for measuring movements and seed dispersal in cassowaries. Journal of Field Ornithology. 74(2):193-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1648/0273-8570-74.2.193

Mack AL, Jones J. 2003. Low-frequency vocalizations by cassowaries (Casuarius spp.). The Auk. 120(4):1062-1068. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4090277

Mack AL, Wright DD. 2005. The frugivore community and the fruiting plant flora in a New Guinea rainforest: identifying keystone frugivores. In: Dew JL, Boubli JP (eds). Tropical fruits and frugivores: the search for strong interactors. Dordrecht (Netherlands): Springer; p. 185-203.

Marchant S, Higgins P. 1990. Family Casuariidae cassowaries. In: Sharp M (ed). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds. Melbourne (Australia): Oxford University Press; p. 60-67.

Metropolitan Museum of Art. [accessed 2017 Feb 24]; http://www.metmuseum.org/

Moore L. 2003. Ecology and population viability analysis of the Southern Casowary Casuarius casuarius johnsonii Mission Beach, North Queensland. [Townsville]: James Cook University.

Moore L. 2007. Population ecology of the Southern Cassowary Casuarius casuarius johnsonii, Mission Beach North Queensland. Journal of Ornithology. 148(3):357-366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10336-007-0137-1

Naish D, Perron R. 2014. Structure and function of the cassowary's casque and its implications for cassowary history, biology and evolution. Historical Biology. 28(4):507-518. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08912963.2014.985669

Nature conservation (wildlife) regulation 2006. 2006. Queensland (Australia): Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel. https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/pdf/2017-05-12/sl-2006-0206.

Newton D. 1989. Mother cassowary's bones: daggers of the East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. Metropolitan Museum Journal. 24:305-325. doi:10.2307/1512887. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1512887.

Noble JC. 1991. On ratites and their interactions with plants. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 64(1):85-118. http://rchn.biologiachile.cl/pdfs/1991/1/Noble_1991.pdf

Pangau-Adam M, Mühlenberg M. 2014. Palm species in the diet of the Northern Cassowary (Casuarius unappendiculatus) in Jayapura Region, Papua, Indonesia. Palms. 58(1):19-26.

Pangau-Adam M, Mühlenberg M, Waltert M. 2015. Rainforest disturbance affects population density of the Northern Cassowary Casuarius unappendiculatus in Papua, Indonesia. Oryx. 49(4):735. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605313001464

Pangau-Adam M, Noske R. 2010. Wildlife hunting and bird trade in northern Papua (Iraian Jaya), Indonesia. In: Tidemann S, Gosler A (eds). Ethno-ornithology: birds, indigenous peoples, culture and society. London (UK): Earthscan; p. 73-85.

Pangau-Adam M, Noske R, Muehlenberg M. 2012. Wildmeat or bushmeat? Subsistence hunting and commercial harvesting in Papua (West New Guinea), Indonesia. Human Ecology. 40(4):611-621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10745-012-9492-5

Pereira SL, Baker AJ. 2006. A mitogenomic timescale for birds detects variable phylogenetic rates of molecular evolution and refutes the standard molecular clock. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 23(9):1731-1740. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msl038

Perron RM. 2011. The taxonomic status of Casuarius bennetti papuanus and C. b. westermanni. Bulletin of the British Ornithologist's Club. 131:54-58. http://boc-online.org/bulletin/

Phillips MJ, Gibb GC, Crimp EA, Penny D. 2010. Tinamous and moa flock together: mitochondrial genome sequence analysis reveals independent losses of flight among ratites. Systematic Biology. 59(1):90-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syp079

Pratt T, Beehler B. 2015. Cassowaries: Casuariidae. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.

Prum RO, Berv JS, Dornburg A, Field DJ, Townsend JP, Lemmon EM, Lemmon AR. 2015. A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature. 526(7574):569-573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature15697

Richardson K. 1991. The bony casque of the Southern Cassowary Casuarius casuarius. Emu. 91(1):56-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MU9910056

Romer Le. 1997. Cassowary husbandry manual. Queensland (Australia): Currumbin Sanctuary. http://www.australasianzookeeping.org/Husbandry%20Manuals/Cassowary%20Husbandry%20Manual%20_ARAZPA.pdf

Rothschild LWRB. 1900. A monograph of the genus Casuarius. ed. London (UK): Zoological Society of London.

San Diego Zoo Global History Timeline. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global Library; [accessed 2017 Feb 28]. http://library.sandiegozoo.org/history.htm

Schwarz CJ, Seber GAF. 1999. Estimating animal abundance: review III. Statistical Science. 14(4):427-456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/ss/1009212521

Shaw MB (ed). The solitary cassowary. Aug 1979. ZOONOOZ; Vol. LII (No. 8); p. 2-3.

Shih I. Cassowary leaping high caught on film for first time. 2018 May 28. Phys.org. [accessed 2018 June 19]. https://phys.org/news/2018-05-cassowary-high-caught.html.

Stott K. High up in “the land down under.” Oct 1963. ZOONOOZ, Vol. XXXVI (No. 10); p. 11-14.

Stott KW. The very wary cassowary. Apr 1981. ZOONOOZ, Vol. LIV (No. 4); p. 5-7

Stocker GC, Irvine AK. 1983. Seed dispersal by cassowaries (Casuarius casuarius) in North Queensland's rainforests. Biotropica. 15(3):170-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2387825

The cassowary. 1836. The Dublin Penny Journal. 4(200):348-349. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30003676

Thomson D. 1935. Birds of Cape York Peninsula: ecological notes, field observations, and catalogue of specimens collected on three expeditions in north Queensland. ed. Melbourne (Australia): H.J. Green, Government Printer.

Webber BL, Woodrow IE. 2004. Cassowary frugivory, seed defleshing and fruit fly infestation influence the transition from seed to seedling in the rare Australian rainforest tree, Ryparosa sp. nov. 1 (Achariaceae). Functional Plant Biology. 31(5):505-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP03214

Westcott DA. 1999. Counting cassowaries: what does cassowary sign reveal about their abundance? Wildlife Research. 26(1):61-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WR98012

Westcott DA, Bentrupperbäumer J, Bradford M, McKeown A. 2005. Incorporating patterns of disperser behaviour into models of seed dispersal and its effects on estimated dispersal curves. Oecologia. 146(1):57-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-005-0178-1

Wheelwright NT. 1993. Fruit size in a tropical tree species: variation, preference by birds, and heritability. Frugivory and seed dispersal: ecological and evolutionary aspects. Springer; p. 163-174.

White HL. 1913. Notes on the cassowary (Casuarius australis, Wall). Emu. 12(3):172-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MU912172

Williams, E. 2013. Ostrich. London (United Kingdom): Reaktion Books.

Worley K, Scott P (eds). No shrinking violet. Apr 2007. ZOONOOZ; Vol. LXXX (No. 4); p. 24.

Worthy TH, Hand SJ, Archer M. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships of the Australian Oligo-Miocene ratite Emuarius gidju Casuariidae. Integrative Zoology. 9(2):148-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12050

Wright DD. 2005. Diet, keystone resources and altitudinal movements of Dwarf Cassowaries in relation to fruiting phenology in a Papua New Guinean rainforest. In: Dew JL, Boubli JP (eds). Tropical fruits and frugivores: the search for strong interactors. Dordrecht (Netherlands): Springer; p. 205-236.

Wright SM. 1988. A three year observational study of the Double-wattled Cassowary at the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. Animal Keepers Forum. 15(December):402-406.

Additional Internet Resources

View From Behind

Cassowary casque as viewed from behind

Click this image and take a closer look...

Can you see the fine, modified feathers around the cassowary's ears? These may provide protection against small foreign bodies (Biggs 2013).

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.

Image location: Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary, Queensland, Australia

SDZG Library Links