Delany & Happold (1979), East (1998), Estes (1991), Happold (1987), (Kingdon 1982), Mloszewski (1983), Pienaar (1969), Prins (1996), Prins & Lason (1989), Schaller (1972), Sinclair (1977), Smithers (1983)
- Buffalo are often accompanied by cattle egrets, which feed on insects flushed during grazing. Oxpeckers feed on the ectoparasites of buffalo.
- Their grazing and trampling of old grass opens up additional land for more selective species.
- Mortality during the period between birth and reproductive maturity is 55-70%. Factors affecting all age groups include intraspecific competition for food and water, diseases, and predators (including humans), although older animals are more susceptible to death from starvation. Populations are mainly kept in check by carrying capacity of their habitats. Some populations may be limited by competition for food with elephant or wildebeest.
- Lions and spotted hyenas are the main predators, but leopards and crocodiles occasionally make kills. Elephants have reportedly killed buffalo. Lions may be unsuccessful (even gored or trampled to death) in their attempts to pull down buffalo. Buffalo attack lions, often in mobs, when their calves are threatened. Herds react to predators by bunching and confronting the predator with a solid mass of horns. Lone bulls are more susceptible to predation, though are often in better physical condition, than animals in breeding herds. In the absence of epidemics or drought conditions, about 90% of buffalo die from predation.
- Native cultures regard buffalo horns as symbolizing virility or fertility, and horns are commonly used in traditional witchcraft. Buffalo are prized for their meat in many countries.
- Domestication attempts have largely failed due to their intractable nature.