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Giraffes (Giraffa spp.) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources

Bibliography

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Bercovitch F, Beliveau S, and Bashaw M. 2003. A tall order: hormones and behavior in giraffes. ZOONOOZ. 76(4):24-25.

Bercovitch FB, Berry PSM. 2009a. Ecological determinants of herd size in the Thornicroft's giraffe of Zambia. African Journal of Ecology. 48(4):962-971. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01198.x

Bercovitch FB, Berry PSM. 2009b. Reproductive life history of Thornicroft's giraffe in Zambia. African Journal of Ecology. 48(2):535-538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01145.x

Bercovitch FB, Berry PSM. 2012. Herd composition, kinship and fission-fusion social dynamics among wild giraffe. African Journal of Ecology. 51(2):206-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12024

Bercovitch FB, Berry PSM. 2014. The composition and function of all-male herds of Thornicroft's giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis thornicrofti, in Zambia. African Journal of Ecology. 53(2):167-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12169

Bercovitch F, Carter K, Fennessy J, Tutchings A. 2018. Giraffa camelopardalis spp. thornicrofti. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.3; e.T88421020A88421024 [species assessed 2018 Feb 26; page accessed 2018 Nov 20]. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/88421020/88421024.

Bercovitch FB, Deacon F. 2015. Gazing at a giraffe gyroscope: Where are we going? African Journal of Ecology. 53(2):135-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12222

Berry PSM, Bercovitch FB. 2012. Darkening coat colour reveals life history and life expectancy of male Thornicroft's giraffes. Journal of Zoology. 287(3):157-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2012.00904.x

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Brown DM, Brenneman RA, Koepfli K-P, Pollinger JP, Milá B, Georgiadis NJ, Louis Jr EE, Grether GF, Jacobs DK, Wayne RK. 2007. Extensive population genetic structure in the giraffe. BMC Biology. 5:57. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1186/1741-7007-5-57

Cameron EZ, du Toit JT. 2005. Social influences on vigilance behaviour in giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis. Animal Behaviour. 69:1337-1344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.08.015

Carter KD, Seddon JM, Frère CH, Carter JK, Goldizen AW. 2013. Fission–fusion dynamics in wild giraffes may be driven by kinship, spatial overlap and individual social preferences. Animal Behaviour. 85(2):385-394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.11.011

Ciofolo I, Le Pendu Y. Giraffa camelopardalis Giraffe. In: Kingdon J, Hoffman M, editors. Mammals of Africa: pigs, hippopotamuses, cherotain, giraffes, deer and bovids. London (UK): Bloomsbury Publishing; c2013. p. 98-110.

Coe MJ. 1967. Necking behaviour in the giraffe. Journal of Zoology. 151:313-321.

Colbert EH, Morales M. 1990. Evolution of the vertebrates: A history of the backboned animals through time. New York (NY): John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Dagg AI. 1971. Giraffa camelopardalis. Mammalian Species. (5):1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3503830

Dagg AI, Foster JB. 1976. The giraffe: its biology, behavior, and ecology. New York (NY): Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Dagg AI. 2014. Giraffe: biology, behaviour and conservation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

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East R. 1998. African Antelope Database. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group Report.

Estes RD.1991. The behavior guide of African mammals. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press.

Fennessy J. 2009. Home range and seasonal movements of Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis in the northern Namib Desert. African Journal of Ecology. 47(3):318.

Fennessy J, Marais A. 2018. Giraffa camelopardalis spp. antiquorum. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.3; e.T88420742A88420817 [species assessed 2018 Jan 24; page accessed 2018 Nov 20]. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/88420742/88420817.

Fennessy J, Bidon T, Reuss F, Kumar V, Elkan P, Nilsson Maria A, Vamberger M, Fritz U, Janke A. 2016. Multi-locus analyses reveal four giraffe species instead of one. Current Biology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.036

Fennessy J, Leggett K, Schneider S. 2001. A preliminary study of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Desert Research Foundation of Namibia.

Fennessy J, Bock F, Tutchings A, Brenneman R, Janke A. 2013. Mitochondrial DNA analyses show that Zambia's South Luangwa Valley giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis thornicrofti) are genetically isolated. African Journal of Ecology. 51(4):635-640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12085

Fennessy J, Brown D. 2010. Giraffa camelopardalis. In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T9194A12968471.en. Accessed on 28 March 2016.

Fennessy J, Marais A, Tutchings A. 2018. Giraffa camelopardalis spp. peralta. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.3; e.T136913A51140803 [species assessed 2017 Jan 15; page accessed 2018 Nov 20]. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/136913/51140803.

Fobar R. 2019. Masai Giraffes Declared Endangered. Wildlife Watch. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2019/07/masai-giraffes-subspecies-declared-endangered/ 

Foster JB. 1966. The giraffe of Nairobi National Park: Home range, sex ratio, the herd, and food. East African Wildlife Journal. 4:139-148.

Foster JB, Dagg AI. 1972. Notes on the biology of the giraffe. East African Wildlife Journal. 10:1-16.

Gadjev I. 2015. Nature and nurture: Lamarck's legacy. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 114(1):242-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bij.12439

Giraffe Conservation Foundation. 2016. Africa's Giraffe: A conservation guide. 2nd ed. https://giraffeconservation.org/2016/02/15/africas-giraffe-a-conservation-guide/. Downloaded on 08 May 2018.

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Hall-Martin AJ, Skinner JD, Van Dyk JM. 1975. Reproduction in the giraffe in relation to some environmental factors. East African Wildlife Journal. 13:237-248.

Hassanin A, Ropiquet A, Gourmand A-L, Chardonnet B, Rigoulet J. 2007. Mitochondrial DNA variability in Giraffa camelopardalis: Consequences for taxonomy, phylogeography and conservation of giraffes in West and central Africa. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 330(3):265-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2007.02.008

Hayward MW, Kerley GI. 2005. Prey preferences of the lion (Panthera leo). Journal of Zoology. 267(03):309-322.

Innis AC. 1958. The behaviour of the giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis, in the eastern Transvaal. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 131:245-278.

Ishengoma E, Agaba M, Cavener DR. 2017. Evolutionary analysis of vision genes identifies potential drivers of visual differences between giraffe and okapi. PeerJ 5:e3145

IUCN SSC Giraffe & Okapi Specialist Group. 2016. http://www.giraffidsg.org/ Accessed on 28 March 2016.

Jones ML. 1982. Longevity of captive mammals. Zoologische Garten. 52:113-28.

Jones ML. 1993. Longevity of ungulates in captivity. International Yearbook. 32:159-169.

Kingdon J. 1979. East African mammals: An atlas of evolution in Africa, Vol III(B). Large Mammals. London: Academic Press.

Kingdon J. 1997. The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. San Diego: Academic Press.

Krecek RC, Boomker J, Penzhorn JL, and Scheepers L. 1990. Internal parasites of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) from Etosha National Park, Namibia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 26(3):395-397.

Lackey BL, LaRue FV. 1997. North American regional giraffe studbook. Dallas: Dallas Zoo.

Langman VA. 1977. Cow-calf relationships in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa). Ethology. 43(3):264-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.1977.tb00074.x

Le Pendu Y, Ciofolo I, Gosser A. 2000. The social organization of giraffes in Niger. African Journal of Ecology. 38(1):78-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2028.2000.00214.x

Lee DE, Bond ML, Bolger DT. 2017. Season of birth affects juvenile survival of giraffe. 59(1):45-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10144-017-0571-8

Leroy R, Visscher M-N, Halidou O, Boureima A. 2009. The last African white giraffes live in farmers’ fields. Biodiversity and Conservation. 18(10):2663-2677.   https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-009-9628-0

Leuthold BM. 1979. Social organization and behavior of giraffe in Tsavo East National Park. African Journal of Ecology. 17:19-34.

Leuthold BM, Leuthold W. 1978. Ecology of the giraffe in Tsavo East National Park, Kenya. East African Wildlife Journal. 16:1-20.

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MacClintock D. 1973. A natural history of giraffes. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Marais A, Fennessy J, Fennessy S, Brand R, Carter K. 2018. Giraffa camelopardalis spp. angolensis. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.3; e.T88420726A88420729 [species assessed 2018 Feb 22; page accessed 2018 Nov 20]. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/88420726/88420729.

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Mitchell G. 2009. The origins of the scientific study and classification of giraffes. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. 64(1):1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00359190909519234

Mitchell G, Skinner JD. 2009. An allometric analysis of the giraffe cardiovascular system. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology.154(4):523-529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.08.013

Mitchell G, Roberts DG, van Sittert SJ, Skinner JD. 2013. Orbit orientation and eye morphometrics in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). African Zoology. 48(2):333-339.

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Muller Z, Bercovitch F, Brand R, Brown D, Brown M, Bolger D, Carter K, Deacon F, Doherty J et al. 2016. Giraffa camelopardalis (amended version of 2016 assessment) . The IUCN red list of threatened species 2018 [Internet]. Versions 2019.2. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T9194A136266699.en

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Muneza A, Doherty JB, Hussein A, Fennessy J, Marais A, O'Connor D, Wube T. 2018. Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.3; e.T88420717A88420720 [subspecies assessed 2018 Mar 16; page accessed 2018 Nov 20]. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/88420717/88420720.

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O'Connor DA, Butt B, Foufopoulos JB. 2015. Foraging ecologies of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) and camels (Camelus dromedarius) in northern Kenya: effects of habitat structure and possibilities for competition? African Journal of Ecology. 53(2):183-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aje.12204

O’Connor D, Stacy‐Dawes J, Muneza A, Fennessy J, Gobush K, Chase MJ, Brown MB, Bracis C, Elkan P, Zaberirou ARM, et al. 2019. Updated geographic range maps for giraffe, Giraffa spp., throughout sub‐Saharan Africa, and implications of changing distributions for conservation. Mam Rev.:mam.12165. doi:10.1111/mam.12165.

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Pellew RA. 1984. The feeding ecology of a selective browser, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi). Journal of Zoology. 202(1):57-81.

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Additional Internet Resources

Muzzle Touch

A giraffe calf getting kissed by mom

Belart, a Masai giraffe calf just four days old, is attended by his mother, Harriet, at the San Diego Zoo. Photo date: 19 June 2014.

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.

 

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