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Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) Fact Sheet: Physical Characteristics

Physical Characteristics

  Male Female
Head-body length 70-95 cm (2.3-3.1 ft) 50-65 cm (1.6-2.1 ft)
Tail length 42-60 cm (1.4-2.0 ft) 37-41 cm (1.2-1.3 ft)
Weight 15-21 kg (33-46 lbs)
*up to 30 kg (66 lbs) in managed care
10-15 kg (22-33 lbs)

 

Data sources: Kingdon (1997); Zinner (2013)

General Appearance

Size

  • Medium sized monkey (Kummer 1995)
    • Strongly built

Face

  • Hairless (Kummer 1995)
  • Squared-off, dog-like muzzle (Kummer 1995)
    • Snout elongated in juveniles: ages 1-3 (Sigg et al. 1982)

Notable features

  • Both sexes have hairless, markedly callused buttocks (Kummer 1995)

Sexual Dimorphism

Males (Kummer 1968b; Kummer 1995; Nagel 1973; Phillips et al. 1986; Sigg et al. 1982)

  • Body hair
    • Mantle hair: light grey or brown; reaching to the hips
  • Face:
    • Bright pink or reddish
    • Cheek tufts silvery white
  • Canine teeth strong and pointed; sharpened back edges
  • Hind-end large, bright red
    • Surrounded by white tufts of hair

Females (Kummer 1968b; Kummer 1995; Nagel 1973; Phillips et al. 1986; Sigg et al. 1982)

  • Body hair
    • Short, brown
    • Lacks mantle
  • Monthly swelling of vaginal skin coinciding with onset of estrous (time surrounding ovulation)

Infants (to 6 months) (Kummer 1968b; Kummer 1995; Nagel 1973; Phillips et al. 1986; Sigg et al. 1982)

  • Body hair
    • Black, turning brown with age

Other Characteristics

Species definition

  • Based on male morphology and pelage

Coat pigmentation

  • Variable
    • Western populations have darker hair, trending to lighter coloration moving east (summarized by Kummer 1968b)

Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas)

a male Hamadryas Baboon

Male hamadryas with characteristic dog-like muzzle, grey mantle and bare hind-end.

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.

Page Citations

Kummer (1968b)
Kummer (1995)
Nagel (1973)
Nowak (1999)
Phillips et al. (1986)
Sigg et al. (1982)
Wiley (2012)

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