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Leopard (Panthera pardus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography


Al Johany AMH. 2007. Distribution and conservation of the Arabian leopard Panthera pardus nimr in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments. 68: 20-30.

ARKive. [cited Jan 2014]. Panthera pardus.

Ario A., Sunarto S. and Sanderson J. 2008. Panthera pardus ssp. melas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T15962A5334342. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T15962A5334342.en [no longer accessible online, as of 2015 reassessment].

AZA. 2012. North American regional Amur leopard studbook, Panthera pardus orientalis. Compiled by Kreider C.

Bailey TN. 1993. The African leopard: ecology and behavior of a solitary felid. New York: Columbia University Press.

Balme G, DeWoronin-Britz N, Hunter L. 2012. A case of offspring adoption in leopards Panthera pardus. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 42: 63-66.

Balme G, Slotow R, Hunter LTB. 2009a. Impact of conservation interventions on the dynamics and persistence of persecuted leopard (Panthera pardus) populations. Biological Conservation. 142: 2681-2690.

Balme GA, Hunter LTB, Goodman P, Ferguson H, Craigie J, Slotow R. 2010. An adaptive management approach to trophy hunting of leopards Panthera pardus: a case study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In: Macdonal DW, Loveridge A, eds. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press. pp 341-352.

Balme GA, Hunter LTB, Slotow R. 2009b. Evaluating methods for counting cryptic carnivores. Journal of Wildlife Management. 73(3): 433-441.

Balme GA, Hunter LTB. 2013. Why leopards commit infanticide. Animal Behaviour. 86(4): 791-799.

Balme GA, Batchelor A, Britz ND, Seymour G, Grover M, Hes L, Macdonald DW, Hunter LTB. 2013. Reproductive success of female leopards Panthera pardus: the importance of top-down processes. Mammal Review. 43(3): 221-237.

Bothma JP, Bothma MD. 2006. Activity patterns in southern Kalahari leopards. African Zoology. 41(1): 150-152.

Bothma JP, Coertze RJ. 2004. Scent-marking frequency in southern Kalahari leopards. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 34(2): 163-169.

Bothma JP, Le Riche EAN. 1989. Evidence of a flexible hunting technique in Kalahari leopards. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 19: 57-60.

Bothma JP, le Riche EAN. 1995. Evidence of the use of rubbing, scent-marking and scratching-posts by Kalahari leopards. Journal of Arid Environments. 29: 511-517.

Bothma P, Knight MH, le Riche EAN, van Hensbergen HJ. 1997. Range size of southern Kalahari leopards. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 27(3/4): 94-

Brown RW. 1956. Composition of Scientific Words. Published by the author.

Budd J, Leus K. 2011. The Arabian leopard Panthera pardus nimr conservation breeding programme. Zoology in the Middle East. Supp 3: 141-150.

Davis BW, Li G, Murphy WJ. 2010. Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56(1):64-76.

de Ruiter DJ, Berger LR. 2001. Leopard (Panthera pardus Linnaeus) cave caching related to anti-theft behavior in the John Nash Nature Reserve, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology. 39: 369-398.

Dhanwatey HS, Crawford JC, Abade LAS, Dhanwatey PH, Nielsen CK, Sillero-Zubiri C. 2013. Large carnivore attacks on humans in central India: a case study from the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve. Oryx. 47(2): 221-227.

Duckworth JW, Pine RH. 2003. English names for a world list of mammals, exemplified by species of Indochina. Mammal Review. 33(2): 151-173.

Farhadinia MS, Mahdavi A, Hosseini-Zavarei F. 2009. Reproductive ecology of the Persian leopard, Panthera pardus saxicolor, in Sarigol National Park, northeastern Iran (Mammalia: Felidae). Zoology in the Middle East. 48: 13-16.

Fletchall N, ed. 2009. AZA felid taxon advisory group North American regional collection plan (RCP), 2nd edition.

Gonyea WJ, Ashworth R. 1975. The form and function of retractile claws in the Felidae and other representative carnivorans. Journal of Morphology. 145: 229-238.

Guggisberg CAW. 1975. Wild Cats of the World. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company. Pp 216-246, 291-308.

Harihar A, Pandav B, Goyal SP. 2011. Responses of leopard Panthera pardus to the recovery of a tiger Panthera tigris population. Journal of Applied Ecology. 48(3): 806-814.

Harrison DL, Bates PJJ. 1991. The mammals of Arabia. Harrison Zoological Museum Publications. Pp 167-170.

Hayward MW, Henschel P, O'Brien J, Hofmeyr M, Balme G, Kerley GIH. 2006. Prey preferences of the leopard (Panthera pardus). Journal of Zoology (London). 270: 298-313.

Hejna P. 2010. A fatal leopard attack. Journal of Forensic Science. 55(3): 832-834.

Henschel P, Ray JC. 2003. Leopards in African Rainforests: Survey and Monitoring Techniques. Wildlife Conservation Society, Global Carnivore Program. New York.

Henschel, P., Hunter, L., Breitenmoser, U., Purchase, N., Packer, C., Khorozyan, I., Bauer, H., Marker, L., Sogbohossou, E. & Breitenmoser-Wursten, C. 2008. Panthera pardus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 24 December 2013

Henschel P, Hunter LTB, Coad L, KA Abernethy, Muhlenberg M. 2011. Leopard prey choice in the Congo Basin rainforest suggests exploitative competition with human bushmeat hunters. Journal of Zoology. 285: 11-20.

Heptner VG, Sludskii AA, eds. 1992. Mammals of the Soviet Union, Volume II, Part 2. Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats). Rao PM, translator. New Delhi: Amerind Publishing Co. pp 203-273.

Hunter L, Henschel P, Ray JC. 2013. Panthera pardus leopard. In: Kingdon J, Hoffmann M, eds. Mammals of Africa, Vol. V: carnivores, pangolins, equids and rhinoceroses. London (England): Bloomsbury. Pp 159-168.

Hes L. 1991. The Leopards of Londolozi. Struik Winchester, Cape Town.

Hopwood AT. 1947. Contributions to the study of some African mammals. III: adaptation in the bones of the forelimb of the lion, leopard and cheetah. Journal of the Linnaean Society. 41: 259-271.

Houssaye F, Budd J, eds. 2009. EAZA husbandry guidelines for the leopard Panthera pardus spp. EAZA Felid Tag. Amsterday (Netherlands): European Association of Zoos and Aquaria.

ITIS, 2013. Panthera pardus.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System database (ITIS). Panthera pardus. [cited January 2014].

IUCN Cat Specialist Group. 2018. Leopard, Panthera pardus. [accessed 25 July 2018].

Jackson P, Nowell K. 2008. Panthera pardus ssp. orientalis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 23 January 2014.

Jacobson AP, Gerngross P, Lemeris Jr JR, Schoonover, RF, Anco C, Breitenmoser-Wursten C, Durant SM, Farhadinia MS, Henschel P, Kamler JF, Laguradia A, et al. 2016. Leopard (Panthera pardus) status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range. PeerJ 4:e1974. doi:10.7717/peerj.1974.

Jenny D, Zuberbuhler K. 2005. Hunting behaviour in west African forest leopards. African Journal of Ecology. 43: 197-200.

Jorge AA, Vanak AT, Thaker M, Begg C, Slotow R. 2013. Costs and benefits of the presence of leopards to the sport-hunting industry and local communities in Niassa National Reserve, Mozambique. Conservation Biology. 27(4): 832-843.

Kawanishi K, Sunquist ME, Eizirik E, Lynam AJ, Ngoprasert D, Shahruddin WNW, Rayan DM, Sharma DSK, Steinmetz R. 2010. Near fixation of melanism in leopards of the Malay Peninsula. Journal of Zoology. 282(3): 201-206.

Kelly P, Stack D, Harley J. 2013. A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the far eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organizations, veterinarians, and zoos. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine. 23: 163-166.

Kingdon J. 1977. East African mammals: an atlas of evolution in Africa. Vol. IIIA: Carnivores. London: Academic Press. Pp 476.

Kruuk H, Turner M. 1967. Comparative notes on predation by lion, leopard, cheetah and wild dog in the Serengeti area, east Africa. Mammalia 31(1): 1-27.

Laguardia A, Kalmer JF, Li S, Zhang C, Zhou Z, Shi K. 2017. The current distribution and status of leopards Panthera pardus in China. Oryx 51(1):153-159. doi:10.1017/S0030605315000988.

Laman TG, Knott CD. 1997. An observation of leopard (Panthera pardus Linnaeus) mating behavior in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology. 35: 165-167.

le Roux RG, Skinner JD. 1989. A note on the ecology of the leopard (Panthera pardus Linnaeus) in the Londolozi Game Reserve, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology. 27:167-171.

Lovari S, Minder I, Ferretti F, Mucci N, Randi E, Pellizzi B. 2013. Common and snow leopards share prey, but not habitats: competition avoidance by large predators? Journal of Zoology. 291(2): 127-135.

Mallon DP, Breitenmoser U, Ahmad Khan J. 2008. Panthera pardus ssp. nimr. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T15958A5333919. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T15958A5333919.en [no longer accessible online, as of 2015 re-assessment].

Marker LL, Dickman AJ. 2005. Factors affecting leopard (Panthera pardus) spatial ecology, with particular reference to Namibian farmlands. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 35(2): 105-115.

Martins W, Horsnell WGC, Titus W, Rautenbach T, Harris S. 2011. Diet determination of the Cape Mountain leopards using global positioning system location clusters and scat analysis. Journal of Zoology. 283(2): 81-87.

Miththapala S, Seidensticker J, Rhillips LG, Fernando SBU, Smallwood JA. 1989. Identification of individual leopards (Panthera pardus kotiya) using spot pattern variation. Journal of Zoology. 218: 527-536.

Mondal K, Gupta S, Aureshi W, Sankar K. 2011. Prey selection and food habits of leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Mammalia. 75(2):201-205.

Muckenhirn NA, Eisenberg JF. 1971. Home ranges and predation of the Ceylon leopard.  In: The World's Cats, vol. I Ecology and Conservation. Proceedings of an International Symposium held at Lion Country Safari, Laguna Hills, California, March 15-17, 1971. 142-175.

Myers. 1971. Spotted cats and the fur trade. In: The World's Cats, vol. I Ecology and Conservation. Proceedings of an International Symposium held at Lion Country Safari, Laguna Hills, California, March 15-17, 1971. 276-326.

Nabi DG, Tak SR, Kangoo KA, Halwai MA. 2009. Comparison of injury pattern in victims of bear (Ursus thibetanus) and leopard (Panthera pardus) attacks, a study from a tertiary care center in Kashmir. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery. 35(2): 153-158.

Nowak R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Nowell K, Jackson P. 1996. Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

O'Brien S, Johnson W. 2005. Big cat genomics. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 6:407-290.

O'Brien SJ, W. Johnson W. 2007. The evolution of cats. Scientific American. 297(1):68-75.

Odden M, Wegge P, Fredriksen T. 2010. Do tigers displace leopards? If so, why? Ecological Research. 25(4): 875-881.

Odden M, Wegge P. 2009. Kill rates and food consumption of leopards in Bardia National Park, Nepal. Acta Theriologica. 54(1): 23-30.

Owen C, Niemman S, Slotow R. 2010. Copulatory parameters and reproductive success of wild leopards in South Africa. Journal of Mammalogy. 91(5): 1178-1187.

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Peters G. 2002. Purring and similar vocalizations in mammals. Mammal Review. 32(4): 245-271.

Peters G. 2011. Dominant frequency of loud mew calls of felids (Mammalia: Carnivora) decreases during ontogenetic growth. Mammal Review. 41(1): 54-74.

Ray JC, Hunter L, Zigouris J. 2005. Setting conservation and research priorities for larger African carnivores. Wildlife Conservation Society. New York.

Robinson R. 1970. Inheritance of the black form of the leopard Panthera pardus. Genetica. 41: 190-197.

Sadlier RMFS. 1966. Notes on the reproduction in the larger Felidae. International ZooYearbook. 6: 184-187.

Schaller GB. 1972. The Serengeti Lion: a study of predator-prey relations. Chicago (Illinois): Chicago University Press. Pp 494.

Schneider A, David VA, Johnson WE, O'Brien SJ, Barsh GS, Menotti-Raymond M, Eizirik E. 2012. How the leopard hides its spots: ASIP mutations and melanism in wild cats. Plos One. 7(12): e50386. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050386.

Seidensticker J. 1977. Notes on early maternal behavior of the leopard. Mammalia. 41(1): 111-113.

Selvan KM, Veeraswami GG, Lyngdoh S, Babib B, Hussain SA. 2013. Prey selection and food habits of three sympatric large carnivores in a tropical lowland forest of the eastern Himalayan biodiversity hotspot. Mammalian Biology. 78(4): 296-303.

Seymour G. 2004. The leopards of Londolozi - twenty-five years of leopard observations. CCA Ecological Journal. 6: 113-118.

Simcharoen S, Barlow ACD, Simcharoen A, Smith JLD. 2008. Home range size and daytime habitat selection of leopards in Huai Kah Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Biological Conservation. 141(9): 2242-2250.

Stander P, Hansses L. 2001. Population ecology and long-term monitoring of free-ranging large carnivore populations in Namibia's marginal and arid environments. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Namibia.

Stander PEP, Haden J, Kaqece //, Ghau //. 1997. The ecology of asociality in Namibian leopards. Journal of Zoology, London. 242: 343-364.

Stein AB, Athreya V, Gerngross P, Balme G, Henschel P, Karanth U, Miquelle D, Rostro-Garcia S, Kamler JF, Laguardia A, et al. 2016. Panthera pardus: The IUCN red list of threatened species. Cambridge (UK): International Union for Conservation of Nature. [accessed 2018 Jul 04].

Stein AB, Filler RK, Marker LL. 2013. Brown hyena feeding ecology on Namibian farmlands. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 43(1): 27-32.

Taghdisi M, Mohammadi A, Nourani E, Shokri S, Rezaei A, Kaboli M. 2013. Diet and habitat use of the endangered Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in northeastern Iran. Turkish Journal of Zoology. 37(5): 554-561.

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