Skip to main content
sdzglibrarybanner San Diego Zoo Global Library

Nile Crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus & C. suchus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography


Bell, C. (Ed.) 2001. Encyclopedia of the World's Zoos. Vol. A-F. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. Chicago. London. pp. 322-329.

Benton, M. 1985. Classification and phylogeny of the diapsid reptiles. Zoology Journal of the Linnaean Society. 84:97-164.

Benton, M. 2004. Vertebrate Paleontology. 3rd edition. Blackwell Science Ltd.

BBC Wildlife. 2009 November. Hippos attack Crocodile.

Bishop, J. A. Leslie, S. Bourquin, C. O' Ryan 2009. Reduced effective population size in an overexploited population of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Biological Conservation 142:2335-2341.

Brazaitis, P. 1989. The forensic identification of crocodilian hides and products. In: Crocodiles: Their Ecology, Management, and Conservation. IUCN Special Publication of Crocodile Specialist Groups of the Species Survival Commission. pp. 17-43.

Britton, A. 2001. Review and classification of call types of juvenile crocodilians, and factors affecting distress calls. In: Grigg, G., F. Seebacher and C. Franklin (Eds.) Crocodilian Biology and Evolution. Surrey Beatty & Sons, New South Wales, Australia. pp. 364-377.

_________ 2003. Crocodilians (Crocodiles, alligators, caiman, and gharials). Website for

_________ 2009. What's the difference between a crocodile and an alligator? Crocodilian Biology Database webpage (updated Jan. 2009)

Brochu, C. 2001. Congruence between physiology, phylogenetics and the fossil record on crocodylian historical biogeography. In: Grigg, G. F. Seebacher and C. Franklin (Eds.) Crocodilian Biology and Evolution. Surrey Beatty & Sons, New South Wales, Australia. pp. 9-28.

Brochu, C. and L. Densmore 2001. Crocodile phylogenetics: a summary of current progress. In: Grigg, G., F. Seebacher and C. Franklin (Eds.) Crocodilian Biology and Evolution. Surrey Beatty & Sons, New South Wales, Australia. pp. 3-8.

Campbell, H. 1973. Observations on the acoustic behavior of crocodilians. Zoologica 58:1-11.

Carroll, R. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York. pp. 277-285

Cott, H. 1961. Scientific results of an inquiry into the ecology and economic status of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in Uganda and Northern Rhodesia. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 29:211-356.

_______1975. The Nile Crocodile. In: Looking at Animals: a Zoologist in Africa. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. pp.135-153.

Craig, G. 1992. A population model for the Nile crocodile with an analysis of sustainable harvesting strategies. In: Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 11th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. pp. 78-81.

Crocodile Specialist Group 1996. Crocodylus niloticus. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2.

Dessauer, H., T. Glenn, L. Densmore 2002. Studies on the molecular evolution of the Crocodylia: Footprints in the sands of time. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular and Developmental Evolution) 294:302-311.

Dinets, V. 2015. Play behavior in crocodilians. Animal Behavior and Cognition. 2(1):49-55.

Downs, C., C. Greaver, R. Taylor 2008. Body temperature and basking behavior of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) during winter. Journal of Thermal Biology 33:185-192

Dozma, B., S. Sejoe, B. Segwagwe, 2008. Commercial crocodile farming in Botswana. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 40:377-381.

Ferguson, M. 1985. Reproductive biology and embryology of the crocodilians. In: Gans, C., F. Billett, P. Maderson (Eds.) Biology of the Reptilia. Wiley Interscience. New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore. pp. 329-491.

Foggin, C. 1987. Diseases and disease control on crocodile farms in Zimbabwe. In: Webb, J., S. Webb, C. Manolis, P. Whitehead (Eds.) In: Crocodiles and Alligators: Wildlife Management.

Franklin, C. and M. Axelsson 1994. The intrinsic properties of an in situ perfused crocodile heart. Journal of Experimental Biology 186:269-288.

Franklin, C. and G. Grigg 1993. Increased vascularity of the lingual salt glands of the esturarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, kept in hyperosmotic salinity. Journal of Morphology. 218(2):143-151.

Frey, E. and S. Salisbury 2000. The kinematics of aquatic locomotion in Osteolaemus tetraspis Cope. Grigg, G. F. Seebacher, C. Franklin (Eds.) In: Crocodilian Biology and Evolution. pp. 165-179.

Garrick, L. and J. Lang 1977. Social signals and behaviors of adult alligators and crocodiles. American Zoologist 17(1):225-239.

Grenard, S. 1991. Handbook of Alligators and Crocodiles. Krieger Publishing, Malabar, Florida.

Grigg, G. and Kirshner, D. 2015. Biology and Evolution of Crocodylians. Sydney (Australia): CSIRO Publishing.

Harper, D. 2001. Crocodile. On Line Etymology Dictionary.

Hekkala, E., G. Amato, R. DeSalle, M. Blum 2009. Molecular assessment of population differentiation and individual assignment potential of Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) populations. Conservation Genetics. Published on-line Aug. 2009.

Hekkala, E.R., M.H. Shirley, G. Amato, J.D. Austin, S. Charter, J. Thorbjarnarson, K.A. Vliet, M.L. Houck, R. Desalle, M.J. Blum. 2011. An ancient icon reveals new mysteries: mummy DNA resurrects a cryptic species within the Nile crocodile. Molecular Ecol. 20(20): 4199-4215. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05245.x.

Huchzermeyer, F. 2002a. Diseases of farmed crocodiles and ostriches. Review of Science and Technology. 21(2)265-276

______________. 2002b. Stress in farmed and captive crocodiles: stressors and effects. In: Crocodiles. Crocodile Specialist Group, Species Survival Commission, IUCN. Proceedings of the 16th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. Gainesville, Florida U.S.A. 7-10 October, 2002.

_______________ 2003. Crocodiles: Biology, Husbandry, Diseases. CABI International Publishing. UK and Massachusetts.

Hillenius, W. J. Ruiben 2004. Getting warmer, getting colder: reconstructing crocodylomorph physiology. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 77(6)1168-1072.

Hutton, J. 1987. Incubation temperatures, sex ratios and sex determination in a population of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Journal of Zoology, 211(1): 143 - 155.

_______. 1989. Movement, home range, dispersal and separation of size classes in Nile crocodiles. American Zoologist 29(3):1033-1050.

Isberg. 2019. Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019.1; e.T45433088A3010181 [species assessed 2017 Apr 30; page accessed 2019 Apr 03]. doi: not available as of 2019 Apr 03.

Janke, A., U. Arnason 1997. The complete mitochondrial genome of Alligator mississippiensis and the separation between recent Archosauria (Birds and Crocodiles). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14(12):1266-1272.

Janke A, A. Gullberg, S. Hughes, R. Aggarwal, U. Arnason. 2005. Mitogenomic analyses place the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) on the crocodile tree and provide pre-K/T divergence times for most crocodilians. J Mol Evol. 61(5):620-6.

King, F., R. Burke (Eds.) 1997. Crocodilian, Tuatara, and Turtle Species of the World. An online taxonomic and geographic reference. Association of Systematics Collections, Washington D.C. On-line version of 1989 edition.

Kirchhoff, H. K. Mohan, R. Schmidt, M. Runge, D. Brown, M. Brown, C. Foggin, P. Muvavarinrwa, H. Lehmann, J. Flossdorf 1997. Mycoplasma crocodyli sp. nov. a New Species from Crocodiles. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 47742-746.

Koshiba-Takeuchi K., A. Mori, B. Kaynak, J. Cebra-Thomas, T. Sukonnik, R. Georges, S. Latham, L. Beck, R. Henkelman, B. Black, E. Olson, J. Wade, J. Takeuchi, M. Nemer, S. Gilbert, B. Bruneau. 2009. Reptilian heart development and the molecular basis of cardiac chamber evolution. Nature 3 September 461:95-98.

Kofron, C. 1990.The reproductive cycle of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Journal of Zoology, 221(3): 477 - 488.

Kumazawa, Y. and M. Nishida 1995. Variations in mitochondrial tRNA gene organization of reptiles as phylogenetic markers. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 12:759-772.

Lance, V., L. Morici, R. Elsey (2000). Physiology and endocrinology of stress in crocodilians. Crocodilian Biology and Evolution : 327-340.

Leslie, A. and L. Taplin 2001. Recent developments in osmoregulation of crocodilians. In: Grigg, G., F. Seebacher and C. Franklin (Eds.) Crocodilian Biology and Evolution. Surrey Beatty & Sons, New South Wales, Australia. pp. 264-279

Leslie, A. J. Spotila 2001. Alien plant threatens Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) breeding in Lake St. Lucia, South Africa. Biological Conservation 98:347-355.

Loveridge, J. 1984. Thermoregulation in the Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus. Symposia Zoological Society of London 52:443-467.

Modha, M. 1967. The ecology of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus laurentii) on Central Island, Lake Rudolf. East African Wildlife Journal 5:74-95.

_________1968. Crocodile research project, Central Island, Lake Rudolf: 1967 breeding season. East African Wildlife Journal 6:148-150.

Parker, V. 2009. Crocodile etymology. Personal communication.

Pooley, A. and C. Gans 1976. The Nile Crocodile. Scientific American 234(4):114-124.

Rhodes, W. and J. Lang 1996. Alligator nest temperature and hatchling sex ratios in coastal South Carolina. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Southeast Associations of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 50:521-531.

Romero, G. 1983. Distress call saves a Caiman c. crocodilus hatchling in the Venezuelan Llanos. Biotropica 15(1):71.

Ross, J. (Ed.) 1998. Crocodiles. Status survey and conservation action plan, second edition. IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN Gland, Switzerland p. 96. Accessed 22 Dec. 2009.

Schmitz, A., P. Mansfeld, E. Hekkala, T. Shine, H. Nickel, G. Amato, W. Böhme 2003. Molecular evidence for species level divergence in African Nile Crocodiles Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti, 1986).

Seebacher, F., G. Grigg, L. Beard 1999. Crocodiles as dinosaurs: behavioural thermoregulation in very large ectotherms leads to high and stable body temperatures. Journal of Experimental Biology 202(1):77-86.

Seebacher, F., H. Gunderley, R. Elsey, P. Trosclair 2003. Seasonal acclimatization of muscle metabolic enzymes in a reptile (Alligator mississippiensis). Journal of Experimental Biology 206:1193-1200.

Sereno, P. 2001. The giant crocodyliform Sarcosuchus from the Cretaceous of Africa. Science 294(5546):1516-9.

Seymour, R. C. Bennett-Stamper, S. Johnston, D. Carrier, G. Grigg 2004. Evidence for endothermic ancestors of crocodiles at the stem of archosaur evolution. Physiology Biochemistry Zoology 77:1051-1067.

Shute, C. and A. Bellairs. 1955. The external ear in Crocodilia. Proceedings Zoological Society of London 124(4):741-749.

Simbotwe, M. J. Matlhare 1987. The Nile crocodile in Botswana. In: Report to the 6th Conference of CITES. Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 1-13.

Spotilla, J., K. Terpin, P. Dodson 1977. Mouth gaping as an effective thermoregulatory device in alligators. Nature 265:235-236.

Summers, A. 2005. Warm-hearted crocs. Nature. 434 14 April 833-834.

Trutnau, L. and R. Sommerlad 2006. Crocodilians: Their Natural History and Captive Husbandry. Editiona Chimaira. Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

UNEP. 2019. Crocodylus niloticus. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Apr 03].

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Nile crocodile (Crocodylus nitoticus). ECOS (Environmental Conservation Online System) [online database]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. [accessed 2019 Apr 09].

Webb, G. and C. Manolis 1989. Crocodiles of Australia. Reed Books: Sydney, Australia.

Whittaker, R. and J. M. Fernández-Palacios 2007. Island biogeography:ecology, evolution, and conservation. Oxford University Press. Oxford, New York.

Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS). Ver 2.1. 2015. [updated 2015 Mar 12; accessed 2015 Mar 12].

Additional Internet Resources

SDZG Library Links