Species: Equus quagga
Head and Body Length
Pelage: Short, dense black and white hair. Striped pattern variable from one individual to another, with overall regional differences as well. Northern
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Range: Most widespread distribution of all wild equids. Eastern and Southern Africa.
Habitat: Habitat generalist. Found in grasslands and grassland-bushland or grassland-woodland mosaics.
IUCN Status: Least Concern (version 3.1); assessed 2008. Low risk of extinction in the wild; no major range-wide threats.
CITES Appendix: not listed
Population in Wild: No recent estimates. Estimates of 796,000 - 1,326,000 in 2002.
Locomotion: Walk, trot, gallop, and run. Styles similar to those naturally occurring in horses. Swim to cross rivers and streams.
Activity Cycle: Diurnal; travel, feed, and socialize in daylight. Sleep in groups at night.
Social Groups: Live in family groups known as harems; composed of a single adult stallion (male), one or more adult mares (females), and their offspring. Harems often aggregate to form large herds, though typically each lives independently of one another.
Diet: Mostly grasses. Survive on bark and other coarse vegetation in times of famine.
Predators: Adults taken by lions and large packs of spotted hyena. Cheetah, African wild dog, and leopard take foals. Nile crocodile opportunistically kill zebra.
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
Sexual Maturity: Stallions 4-5 yrs, mate only after forming own harem. Mares mature at 1-3 yrs, though typically first reproduce at 3-4 yrs of age.
Gestation: 360-396 days, typically c.375 days
Litter Size: 1 most often; twins extremely rare
Birth Weight: 30-35 kg (66-77 lb)
Age at Weaning: 9 months
Longevity: Maximum longevity c. 30-40 years in captivity, more commonly 11-17 years; maximum longevity in the wild c. 20 years.
Feature Facts: The distinctive black and white coats of zebras can be used to identify individuals. Researchers studying populations can read these patterns (almost like a bar code) to track individuals as they move through large herds on the African plains that they call home. The zebra is physically and behaviorally similar to the domestic horse. Females live within a social group, known as a harem, that is led by a single male stallion. As social animals, zebras exhibit complex behaviors which serve to reinforce relationships between members of a harem. Members greet, groom, and maintain contact with one another.
© 2015 San Diego Zoo Global. Updated April 2015.
How to cite: Plains Zebra (Equus quagga) Fact Sheet. c2015. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ plains_zebra. (note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Sep 10)
Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to email@example.com.
We are grateful to John Register for providing content review of this fact sheet.
John is currently the Hoofed Stock Supervisor with Houston Zoo and serves as the AZA Studbook Keeper and is the Program Leader for this species SSP.