Diurnal; activity is greatest at dawn and dusk (Einarsen, 1948, Kitchen, 1974)
Sleep often, but for short periods without continuity or regularity
Spend the majority of their time feeding, resting, and ruminating
Activity schedule is highly variable, affected by season, weather, region, herd dynamics
Daily area occupied by Wyoming Pronghorn was 2.6 to 5.2 sq km (1 to 2 sq mi) summer and autumn.
Social organization is influenced by differences in quality of habitat and density and spatial dispersion of individuals
Herd composition changes daily, even hourly; when food is plentiful, groups (bands) of 3 to 25 are spatially distant but still within visual contact of one another; in fall and winter, bands come together to form larger herd (as many as 1,000) as protection from predators
Dominance hierarchies are maintained by female bands, bachelor bands, and territorial male bands that contain more than one male (see Breeding Systems)
Alarm: erect hair on white rump patch, doubling the size of the patch and producing a “flash” visible up to 2 miles
An aggressive male wishing to exaggerate the size of its horns will fold down the ears; the dark horns and dark facial markings will help emphasize the horns.
Territorial males mark territory using a linked sniff-paw-urinate-defecate sequence
Each element of the sequence is performed in exaggerated form with extreme postural changes
Territorial males also mark tall grasses with secretions from cheek glands
Territorial challenge usually composed of five phases:
Stare at intruder
Advertise presence with snort-wheeze and erect the mane and hair of rump patch
Approach intruder, often trotting up to within 37 m (40 yards) then using stiff-legged gait to approach within 14 m (15 yards)
Broadside displays, walking parallel with head low
Chasing intruder out of territory, if he hasn’t already backed down
Fights with horns are rare, and usually take place in the presence of a female ready to breed. Such fights consist of a series of thrusts and counter thrusts with the horns, locking horns and twisting necks, and lunging at the opponent. Serious injury and death can result from stab wounds.
Usual running speed of 40 mph (64 km/h); maximum speed of 57 mph (92 km/h) for up to 9 miles (15 km)'
Leaping gait, with leaps covering 9 to 19 feet (3 to 6 m) at a time
Instead of jumping over obstacles, prefers to go underneath them if possible
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