Skip to main content
sdzglibrarybanner San Diego Zoo Global Library

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Fact Sheet: Bibliography

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)


Baccus, R., N. Ryman, M.H. Smith, C. Reuterwall, and D. Cameron. 1983. Genetic variability and differentiation of large grazing mammals. J. Mammal. 64(1): 109-120.

Byers, J.A. 1997. American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 300 pp.

Byers, J.A. 2011. Antilocapridae (Pronghorn). In: Wilson, D.E., Mittermeier, R.A. (ed.), Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 2: Hoofed Mammals, pp. 780-787. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Cockrum, E.L. 1981. Taxonomy of the Sonoran pronghorn. Pages 2-10 in J.S. Phelps, ed., The Sonoran Pronghorn. Spec. Rept. 10. Arizona Dept. Game and Fish, Phoenix. 55 pp.

Cronin, M.A., R. Stuart, B.J. Pierson, and J.C. Patton. 1996. Kappa-casein gene phylogeny of higher ruminants (Pecora, Artiodactyla). Mol. Phylogenetics and Evol. 6(2): 295-311.

Davis, E. 2007. Family Antilocapridae. In: Prothero, D. and S. Foss (eds.), The Evolution of the Artiodactyls. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. pp. 227-240.

Edwards, J.F., Davis, D.S., Roffe, T.J., Ramiro-Ibanez, F., Elzer, P.H. 2001. Fusobacteriosis in Captive Wild-caught Pronghorns (Antilocapra americana). Vet. Pathol., 38: 549-552.

Einarsen, A.S. 1948. The Pronghorn Antelope and Its Management. Monumental Printing Co., Baltimore, Maryland. 238 pp.

Hernández Fernández, M. and E. Vbra 2005. A complete estimate of the phylogenetic relationships in Ruminantia: a date species-level supertree of extant ruminants. Biological Reviews 80:269-302.

IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Antilocapra americana. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2016: e.T1677A50181848. Accessed 05 January 2017.

Janis, C.M. 1982. Evolution of horns in ungulates: Ecology and paleoecology. Biol. Rev. 57(2): 261-318.

Janis, C. M. 2000. Ruminants of the Neogene of North America. In: Vrba, E. and G. Schaller (eds.) Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives: Fossil Record, Behavioral Ecology, Systematics, and Conservation. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. pp. 26-37.

Janis, C.M. and K.M. Scott. 1987. The interrelationships of higher ruminant families with special emphasis on the members of the Cervoidea. Am. Mus. Novit. 2,983: 1-85.

Kitchen, D.W. 1974. Social behavior and ecology of the pronghorn. Wildl. Monogr. 38. 96 pp.

Lee, T.E., Jr. 1992. Mitochondrial DNA and allozyme analysis of pronghorn populations in North America. Ph.D. thesis, Texas A&M Univ., College Station. 53 pp.

Maher, C.R. 2000. Quantitative variation in ecological and hormonal variables correlates with spatial organization of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) males. Behav. Ecol. and Sociobiol. 47 (5): 327-338.

Murray, L. 2006. The smaller Artiodactyls: peccaries, oxen, deer, and pronghorns. Jefferson, G. and L. Lindsay (eds) In: Fossil Treasures of the Anza-Borrego Desert: the Last Seven Million Years. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego, California. pp.273-287.

Nowak, R.M. 1999. Walker’s Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

O’Gara, B.W. 1968. A study of reproduction in the female pronghorn (Antilocapra americana Ord.) Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Montana, Missoula. 161 pp.

O'Gara, B.W. 1978. Antilocapra americana. Mammalian Species, American Society of Mammalogists. 90:1-7.

O’Gara, B.W. and G. Matson. 1975. Growth and casting of horns by pronghorn and exfoliation of horns by bovids. J. Mammal. 56(4): 829-846.

O'Gara, B.W. 1990. The Pronghorn (Antilocapra ameriacana) In: Bubenik, G. and A. Bubenik (eds) Horns, Pronghorns, and Antlers. Springer-Verlag, New Yokr, Berlin, Heidelberg, London, Paris, Tokyo, Hong Kong. pp 231-264.

O’Gara, B.W. and J.D. Yoakum. 2004. Pronghorn Ecology and Management. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. 903 pp.

Prothero, D. and R. Schoch 2002. Horns, Tusks, and Flippers: The Evolution of Hoofed Mammals. pp. 74-76.

Simmons, H.A., Steffen, D.J., Armstrong, D.L., Rogers, D.G. 2002. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in captive pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) in Nebraska. J. Wildl. Dis. 38(4): 822-25.

Thorne, E.T., Williams, E.S., Spraker, T.R., Helms, W., Segerstrom, T. 1988. Bluetongue in free-ranging pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) in Wyoming: 1976 and 1984. J. Wildl. Dis., 24(1): 113-119.

Todd, N.B. 1975. Chromosomal mechanisms in the evolution of articodactyls. Paleobiology 1(2): 175-188.

UNEP. 2019. Species+: Antilocapra americana [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Feb 12].

Wurster, D.H. and K. Benirschke. 1967. Chromosome studies in some deer, the springbok, and the pronghorn, with notes on placentation in the deer. Cytologia 32(2): 273-285.

Additional Internet Resources




Pronghorn, Antilocapra americana

Image credit: San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.

SDZG Library Links