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Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus) Fact Sheet: Distribution & Habitat

Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus)



  • Roamed widely over central Asia, China, and western Europe in prehistoric times
  • Historic range isn't precisely known (Boyd & King 2011)
    • Several researchers suggest Eurasian steppes were home to Przewalski's horses before they were pushed into more arid Gobi Deser
  • Last confirmed observation in the wild was 1969
  • Prior to extinction, populations were found in eastern Kazakhstan, western Mongolia, and northern China
    • Plans for reintroductions to Kazakhstan and Russa (King et al. 2015)


  • As of 2011 there are 306 free-ranging reintroduced and native-born Przewalski's horses in Mongolia (Boyd et al. 2011)
  • Large breeding-reserves established worldwide (in and outside historic range) to prepare individuals for release
    • Le Villaret (Massif Central, France)
    • Buchara (Uzbekistan)
    • Hortobagy National Park (Hungary)
    • Chernobyl (Ukraine)
    • Jimsar (China)
    • Gansu National Park(China)
    • Anxi Gobi Nature Reserve (China)
  • Reintroduction Projects in Mongolia
    • Takhin Tal  (since 1992)
    • Hustain Nuruu (since 1992)
    • Khomii tal (in preparation)


  • Known to inhabit semi-arid and steppe grasslands at 100-1400m elevation
  • Dense vegetation: saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron), wormwood (Artemisia incana), tamarisk (Salicornia herbacea), and various other grasses.
  • Countries of occurence
    • Mongolia
    • Kazakhstan
    • Russia
    • China

Distribution Map

Przewalski's horse distribution map

Przewalski's horse distribution.

Adapted from according to IUCN fact sheet. Click here or on map for detailed distribution (IUCN).

Page Citations

Boyd & Houpt (1994)
Boyd & King (2011)
King et al. (2015)
Ryder (1990)
Wakefield et al. (2006)

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