Ratel/Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis) Fact Sheet, 2015
Image credit: San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.
Species: Mellivora capensis - ratel or honey badger
Pelage: Coarse, black and white hairs. Body mostly black with a mantle of white hair extending from the crown of the head to the base of the tail.
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Range: Broadly distributed across much of Africa; also living on the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian sub-continent. Believed to be absent from the central Sahara Desert and the Mediterranean coast in North Africa.
Habitat: A habitat generalist; ratel live in diverse environments, from arid desert outskirts to rainforests.
IUCN Status: Least Concern (version 3.1)
CITES Appendix: Appendix III in Botswana
Other Designations: South African Red Data Book species
Population in Wild: Global population unknown. Localized population declines in some regions.
Locomotion: Walk, trot, tumble, roll, and somersault on the ground. Capable of climbing trees and swimming.
Activity Cycle: Predominantly nocturnal, though often active in daylight. Sleep below ground in dens or above-ground in hollows. Highly active when awake; may travel 10-27 km/day (6-17 mi/day) in search of food.
Social Groups: Generally non-social, though some interactions between individuals do occur. Males are generally more social than females.
Diet: Carnivores; secure most food through active hunting though individuals may scavenge. Small mammals and reptiles make up much of the diet.
Predators: Few natural predators; leopard, lion, and spotted hyena are known to take ratels.
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
Sexual Maturity: c. 2-3 years in the wild
Gestation: 50-70 days
Litter Size: 1-2 offspring; a single infant is most common
Interbirth Interval: > 12 months; do not breed every year in the wild
Age at Weaning: c. 2-3 months
Longevity: Maximum longevity >30 years in captivity. Short lived in the wild, typically live 7-9 years
Feature Facts: A small carnivore, the ratel or honey badger most often hunts for its food. Individuals spend large amounts of time in slow, winding walks in search of small mammals, reptiles, or other items; their noses held close to the ground. Most food is dug from the ground; escaping prey are often picked off by other species (such as the Pale Chanting-goshawk and black-backed jackal) that forage in association with ratels. Though primarily carnivorous, ratels also have an appetite for honey. Their taste for honey can bring them into conflict with humans, when unprotected hives of beekeepers are destroyed. A single individual can inflict significant damage to bee colonies. Such (learned) behavior places ratels in conflict with humans, leading some beekeepers to protect their hives by killing ratels. Conservation initiatives include efforts to make available inexpensive, ratel-proof hives.
About This Fact Sheet
© 2015 San Diego Zoo Global. Updated April 2015.
How to cite: Ratel/Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis) Fact Sheet, 2015. c2015. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ratel.
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Sep 15)
Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
We are grateful for the assistance of Dr. Colleen Begg who provided expert content review of this fact sheet. Colleen is among the first researchers to conducted systematic research on the ecology and behavior of the ratel. Her intensive, multi-year work focused on ratel's in South Africa's Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in the Kalahari. She has been a long-standing proponent of carnivore conservation and currently serves as the Managing Director of Mariri Investimentos/Niassa Carnivore Project.