Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta)
Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.
Species: Crocuta crocuta - spotted hyena
Body Weight: 40-86 kg (88-190 lb); females often weigh more than males.
Body Length: 144-179 cm (4.7-5.9 ft)
Tail Length: c. 2.5 cm (0.8 ft)
Pelage: Short, light brown, beige, sandy, or ginger hair; spotted with black or brown on the neck, shoulders, back, flanks, rump, legs, and tail base.
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Range: Sub-Saharan Africa, though historically across Africa and Eurasia.
Habitat: Generalist; semi-desert, savanna and open woodland, dense, dry woodland, and montane regions. Sea level to 4,100 m (13,450 ft).
IUCN Status: Least Concern (2014 assessment)
CITES Appendix: Not listed.
Population in Wild: 27,000-47,000 individuals; most abundant within the Serengeti ecosystem and Kruger National Park
Locomotion: Run with a loping gate; travel long distance in search of prey. Non-arboreal. Strong swimmers, capable of submerging for up to 12
Activity Cycle: Nocturnal, though not uncommonly active in daylight. Often rest for long periods of time.
Social Groups: Highly social, living in clans of one to several matrilineal lines and immigrant males. These stable units are composed of 8-80 individuals. Clan members often range widely. Cooperatively defend territory, food resources, and the communal den site. Dominance hierarchies govern interactions. Females dominate males, receiving preferential access to food.
Diet: Carnivorous, primarily taking medium to large ungulates; though consuming a wide variety of mammals and other animals. Devour all parts,
Predators: Commonly killed by lions, other spotted hyena, and humans.
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
Sexual Maturity: 2-3 yrs. Males first reproduce c. 3-4 yrs, females 2-5 yrs.
Gestation: 98-111 days, 110 commonly reported.
Litter Size: 1-2 typically, triplets rare.
Birth Weight: c. 1.5 kg (3.3 lb).
Age at Weaning: c. 1 year.
Longevity: In managed care, to 40 yrs; mean c. 20 yrs.
© 2014-2019 San Diego Zoo Global. Population estimates and IUCN Status updated Apr 2019.
How to cite: Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta) Fact Sheet. c2014-2019. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed YYYY Mon DD]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ spottedhyena.
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2014 Sep 15)
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