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Takin (Budorcas spp.) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Allen, G.M. 1940. Natural history of central Asia. Vol. 10. The mammals of China and Mongolia. Part 2. New York: American Museum of Natural History.

Anderson, M.P. 1920. The discovery of the Chinese takin. Natural History 20:428-433.

Bailey, F.M. 1912. Note on takin (Budorcas taxicolor). Journal Bombay Natural History Society 21:1069-1071.

Benirschke, K. 2004. Sichuan Takin (Budorcas taxicolor) : comparative placentation.

Breed, A.C., R.K. Plowright, D.T. Hayman, D.L. Knobel. 2009. Disease Management in Endangered Mammals. In: Delahay, R.J., G.C. Smith, M.R. Hutchings (Eds), Management of Disease in Wild Mammals. Springer.

Carroll, R.L. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W.H. Freeman and Co. New York. pp. 519-520.

Castillo, S. 1990. Takins - From Sichuan to San Diego. Zoonooz. June 1990. p. 5-9.

Castelló JR. 2016. Bovids of the world: antelopes, gazelles, cattle, goats, sheep, and relatives. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press. p. 458-465

Chettri, N. E. Sharma, B. Shakya, R. Thapa, B. Bajracharya, K. Udin, K. Oli, D. Choudhury. 2010. Biodiversity in the Eastern Himalayas: status, trends and vulnerability to climate change. Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability in the Eastern Himalayas, Technical Report 2. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Estes, R.D. A visit to our first takin. Animal Kingdom. 62:37-42.

Geist, V. 1984. Goat Antelopes. In: Macdonald, D. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Mammals. Andromeda Oxford Ltd. UK pp. 570-577.

Gentry, A.W. 1992. The subfamilies and tribes of the family Bovidae. Mammal Review 22:1-32.

Groves, P. and G. Shields. 1997. Cytochrome B sequences suggest convergent evolution of the Asian Takin and Arctic Muskox. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 8(3):363-374

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: Wilson, D.E. and D.M. Reeder (Eds.) Mammal species of the World. A taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed) pp 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

Guo, J. J.Rasmussen, A. Wunschmann, A. de la Conch-Bermejillo. 2004. Genetic characterization of orf viruses isolated from various ruminant species of a zoo. Veterinary Microbiology 99(2):81-92.

Groves C, Leslie Jr DM. 2011. Genus Bucadorcas. In: Handbook of the mammals of the world (Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA, eds). Barcelona: Lynx Ediciones; p. 713-714.

Hassanin, A. E. Pasquet, J-D. Vigue. 1998. Molecular systematics of the subfamily Caprinae (Artiodactyla, Bovidae) as determined from Cytochrome b Sequences. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 5(3):217-236.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System database (ITIS) [Internet]. [assessed 2017 Mar 14]. Budorcas taxicolor.

Li, Ming, Wei Fuwen, Groves, P., Feng Zuojian and Hu Jinchu. 2003. Genetic structure and phylogeny of the takin (Budrocas taxicolor) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:462-68.

Lydekker R, 1913-1916. Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum. Vol 1. London: British Museum of Natural History.

Morris, P.J. E. Bicknese, D. Janssen, M. Sutherland-Smith, A. Shima, L. Young, J. Zuba. 2000. Chemical immobilization of Takin (Budorcas taxicolor) at the San Diego Zoo. International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine.

Neas, J.F. and R.S. Hoffmann. 1987. Budorcas taxicolor. Mammalian Species 277:1-7.

Novak, R.M. 1999. Artiodactyla: Bovidae: Genus Budorcas. Walker's Mammals of the World. Vol. 1.

Pasitschniak-Arts, M., P.F. Flood, S.M. Schmutz, B. Seidel. 2006. A comparison of G-band patterns of the muskox and takin and their evolutionary relationship to sheep. Journal of Heridity 85(2):143-147

Pedersen, A.B., K.E. Jones, C.L Nunn, S. Altizer. 2007. Infectious diseases and extinction risk in wild mammals. Conservation Biology 21(5):1269-1279. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00776.x.

Penny, C. 1989. Sichuan takin calves born at the San Diego Zoo. American Association Zoological Parks and Aquariums Newsletter 30(10):17.

Sangay T, Rajaratnam R, Vernes K. 2016. Current distribution and conservation status of Bhutan takin Budorcas whitei Lydekker, 1907 (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Journal of Threatened Taxa. 8(14):9630–9637. doi:10.11609/jott.2925.8.14.9630-9637.


Schaller, G.B. 1977. Mountain monarchs: wild sheep and goats of the Himalaya. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Schaller, G.B., Q. Teng, P. Wenshi, W. Zisheng, X. Wang J. Ju, S. Heming 1986. Feeding behavior of Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor). Mammalia 50(3): 311-322.

Simpson GG, 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 85: 1-350.a classification of mammals. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 85: 1-350.

Song, Y.L., Smith & MacKinnon 2008. Budorcas taxicolor. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4 Downloaded 03 January 2011. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T3160A9643719.en.

Tree of Life Web Project 2006. Caprinae. Version 23 February 2006 (temporary).

UNEP-WCMC. 2011. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) -World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) Species Database. CITES-Listed Species. New website:

Walther, F.R. 1990. Takins (Genus Budorcas). In: Parker, S. (Ed). Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 5. New York: McGraw Hill Publishing Co. pp. 507-509.

Wu, J. 1989. The systematics and distribution of the takin. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 67(5):A10-A13.

Zeng, Z.-G., A.K. Skidmore, Y.L Song, T.J. Wang, H.S. Gong. 2008. Seasonal altitudinal movements of golden takin in the Qinling Mountains of China. Journal of Wildlife Management 72(3):611-617.

Zeng, Z.-G., W.-Q. Zhong, Y.-L. Song, J.-S. Li, F. Guo. 2002. Group size, composition and stability of golden takin in Shaanxi Foping Nature Reserve, China. Folia Zoologica 51(4):289-298.

Zhi, L. 2001. Giant Panda. In: D. Macdonald (Ed). Encyclopedia of Mammals. Andromeda Oxford Limited. UK. Pp.82-83

Zoonooz 1993. Takin about surprises. August 1993 Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California, p.5

Zoonooz 2006. Zooscoops: We're "takin". Dec. 2006, Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California, p. 24.

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