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Common Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) Fact Sheet: Managed Care

History in Managed Care

Earliest European record

  • First zoological display
    • 1765: displayed at a zoo in The Hague, Netherlands (Sclater 1900; Vercammen and Mason 1993)

North American historical notes

  • Early imports
    • 1875: 1st warthogs (a male and female) imported from Africa by the Philadelphia Zoo (Smith 2011)
  • Early breeding efforts
    • 1912: 1st birth, Philadelphia Zoo (Smith 2011)
  • Not displayed in zoos for several decades
    • 1960-1982: no warthogs held in Association of Zoos and Aquariums institutions (AZA) (Smith 2011)
    • 1982-1995: individuals imported from Africa, Berlin, Gelsenkirchen, and Stuttgart Germany, Moscow, Warsaw, South Africa (Smith 2011)
      • All currently held animals are descendants of these 8 founders

Life in Managed Care

Reproduction in managed care (from Vercammen and Habets 2006 unless otherwise noted)

  • Seasonally reproductive
    • As in the wild
  • Female reproductive traits
    • Mean age at first reproduction: 3 years 6 months
    • Youngest age at first reproduction: 16 months
    • Oldest age of reproduction: >12 years
  • Male reproductive traits
    • Mean age at first reproduction: c. 3 years
    • Youngest age at first reproduction: 11 months
    • Oldest age of reproduction: > 13 years

Diet (from Smith 2011 unless otherwise noted)

  • Grass hays, fruits, and vegetables
  • Pelleted grain chows

Current Population

North America

  • 128 individuals, as of July 3, 2014 (Smith 2014)
    • Housed across 41 AZA institutions (Smith 2011)
    • All are descendants of 5 males and 3 females imported between 1982 and 1995 7 from zoos in Berlin, Moscow, and South Africa; 1 apparently wild caught in South Africa (Smith and Groome 2011)

San Diego Zoo Global

San Diego Zoo Global (SDZG)

  • Early records
    • First housed at the zoo in 1926 (Smith 2011; Vercammen 1998)
  • Current population, as of March 2015 (from ZIMS 2015)
    • San Diego Zoo
      • 4 individuals; 2 males and 2 females
    • San Diego Zoo Safari Park
      • 9 individuals; 7 males and 2 females

Playful Warthog Piglets

Four piglets explore their home at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

What do you notice about how these youngsters interact with their mother and one another?

© San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.

Warthog at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park

A Common Warthog and a pumpkin treat

Halloween treat for warthogs at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.

Page Citations

Sclater (1900)
Smith (2011)
Smith (2014)
Smith and Groome (2011)
Vercammen (1998)
Vercammen and Habets (2006)
Vercammen and Mason (1993)
ZIMS (2015)

SDZG Library Links