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Animal Welfare : A Research Guide: Articles

A selection of animal welfare information resources at the San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library and online.

Articles You May Find Useful ...

jaguar enrichment at San Diego Zoo

Nindiri, a jaguar at the San Diego Zoo, savors a delectable brain-shaped bloodsicle treat. © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

Disclaimer: This site is maintained by the SDZWA Library for the use of San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance staff and volunteers. Although we make every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the resources and links may become outdated. If you have suggestions for updates or additional resources, we welcome your feedback.

Animal Welfare Science

Broom DM. 1988. The scientific assessment of animal welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 20(1), 5-19. DOI: 10.1016/0168-1591(88)90122-0

Dawkins MS. 1990. From an animal's point of view: motivation, fitness, and animal welfare. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:1-9. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X00077104

Dawkins MS. 2004. Using behaviour to assess animal welfare. Animal Welfare 13:S3-S8. Available at:

Dawkins MS. 2006. A user's guide to animal welfare science. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21(2):77-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2005.10.017

Dawkins MS. 2008. The science of animal suffering. Ethology 114(10):937-945. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2008.01557.x

Fraser D. 2008. Understanding animal welfare. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 50(Suppl 1):S1. DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-50-S1-S1

Fraser D. 2009. Assessing animal welfare: different philosophies, different scientific approaches. Zoo Biology 28(6):507-518. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20253

Fraser D, Weary DM, Pajor EA, Milligan BN. 1997. A scientific conception of animal welfare that reflects ethical concerns. Animal welfare 6:187-205. Available at:

Zoo Animal Welfare

Barber JCE. 2009. Programmatic approaches to assessing and improving animal welfare in zoos and aquariums. Zoo Biology 28(6):519-530. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20260

Bassett L, Buchanan-Smith HM. 2007. Effects of predictability on the welfare of captive animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3–4):223-245. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.029

Davey G. 2007. Visitors' effects on the welfare of animals in the zoo: a review. Journal Of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(2):169-183. DOI: 10.1080/10888700701313595

Greggor AL, Vicino GA, Swaisgood RR, Fidgett A, Brenner D, Kinney ME, Farabaugh S, Masuda B, Lamberski N. 2018. Animal Welfare in Conservation Breeding: Applications and Challenges. Front Vet Sci. 5:323. DOI:10.3389/fvets.2018.00323.

Hill SP, Broom DM. 2009. Measuring zoo animal welfare: theory and practice. Zoo Biology 28(6):531-544. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20276

Koene P. 2013. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 16(4):360-380. DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2013.827917

Maple TL. 2007. Toward a science of welfare for animals in the zoo. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10(1):63-70. DOI: 10.1080/10888700701277659

Martin‐Wintle MS, Wintle NJP, Díez‐León M, Swaisgood RR, Asa CS. 2019. Improving the sustainability of ex situ populations with mate choice. Zoo Biology. 38:119–132. DOI:10.1002/zoo.21450.

Miller LJ, Ivy JA, Vicino GA, Schork IG. 2019. Impacts of natural history and exhibit factors on carnivore welfare. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. 22(2):188–196. DOI:10.1080/10888705.2018.1455582.

Miller L, Pisacane C, Vicino G. 2016. Relationship between behavioural diversity and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites: a case study with cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Animal Welfare. 25(3):325–329. doi:10.7120/09627286.25.3.325.

Siegford J. 2013. Multidisciplinary approaches and assessment techniques to better understand and enhance zoo nonhuman animal welfare. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 16(4):300-318. DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2013.827914

Whitham JC, Wielebnowski N. 2013. New directions for zoo animal welfare science. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 147(3/4):247-260. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2013.02.004

Environmental Enrichment

Carlstead K, Seidensticker J, Baldwin R. 1991. Environmental enrichment for zoo bears. Zoo Biology 10(1):3-16. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.1430100103

Carlstead K, Shepherdson D. 1994. Effects of environmental enrichment on reproduction. Zoo Biology 13(5):447-458. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.1430130507

Claxton, A. M. 2011. The potential of the human–animal relationship as an environmental enrichment for the welfare of zoo-housed animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133(1/2):1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.03.002

Hacker C, Miller L, Schulte B. 2018. Examination of enrichment using space and food for African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park. Animal Welfare. 27(1):55–65. doi:10.7120/09627286.27.1.055

Hoy JM, Murray PJ, Tribe A. 2010. Thirty years later: enrichment practices for captive mammals. Zoo Biology 29(3):303-316. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20254

Mason G, Clubb R, Latham N, Vickery S. 2007. Why and how should we use environment enrichment to tackle stereotypic behaviour? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3/4):163-188. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.041

Meehan CL, Mench JA. 2007. The challenge of challenge: can problem solving opportunities enhance animal welfare? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3–4):246-261. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.031

Newberry, R. C. 1995. Environmental enrichment: increasing the biological relevance of captive environments. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 44(2), 229-243. DOI: 10.1016/0168-1591(95)00616-Z

Shyne, A. 2006. Meta‐analytic review of the effects of enrichment on stereotypic behavior in zoo mammals. Zoo Biology, 25(4), 317-337. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20091

Swaisgood RR, Shepherdson DJ. 2005. Scientific approaches to enrichment and stereotypies in zoo animals: what's been done and where should we go next? Zoo Biology 24(6):499-518. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20066

Tarou LR, Bashaw MJ. 2007. Maximizing the effectiveness of environmental enrichment: suggestions from the experimental analysis of behavior. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3–4):189-204. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.05.026

Wells DL. 2009. Sensory stimulation as environmental enrichment for captive animals: a review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118(1–2):1-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2009.01.002

Wild Animal Welfare

Goldenberg SZ, Owen MA, Brown JL, Wittemyer G, Oo ZM, Leimgruber P. 2019. Increasing conservation translocation success by building social functionality in released populations. Global Ecology and Conservation. 18:e00604. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00604

Greggor AL, Price CJ, Shier DM. 2019. Examining the efficacy of anti-predator training for increasing survival in conservation translocations: a systematic review protocol. Environ Evid. 8(S1):11. doi:10.1186/s13750-019-0154-6

Paquet PC, Darimont CT. 2010. Wildlife conservation and animal welfare: two sides of the same coin? Animal Welfare 19(2):177-190. Available at:

Sikes RS, Gannon WL. 2011. Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research. Journal of Mammalogy 92(1):235-253. DOI: 10.1644/10-MAMM-F-355.1

Swaisgood R. 2010. The conservation-welfare nexus in reintroduction programmes: a role for sensory ecology. Animal Welfare. 19:14.

Special Journal Issues

New Zealand Veterinary Journal

Feature Series: Animal welfare: current issues and recent developments


New Zealand Veterinary Journal 63(1): 1-65 (January 2015)


Applied Animal Behaviour

Special Issue: Welfare of Zoo Animals


Applied Animal Behaviour Science 147(3–4): 245-334 (January 2015)


zoo biology

Special Issue: Zoo Animal Welfare


Zoo Biology 28(6): 501–651 (November/ December 2009)


Applied Animal Behaviour Science

Special Issue: Conservation, enrichment and animal behaviour


Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102(3-4): 139-452 (February 2007)

What Is Animal Welfare Science?

 Understanding Animal Welfare

 user's guide to animal welfare science

Animal Welfare Alerts

Keep Current!

What is the Animal Welfare Alerts service?

The SDZWA Library offers a weekly email alert service that highlights new animal welfare articles of interest to the SDZWA community. Sources include the following journals:

  • Animals
  • Animal Behaviour
  • Animal Welfare
  • Applied Animal Behaviour Science
  • Companion Animal
  • International Zoo Yearbook
  • Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science
  • Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
  • Physiology & Behavior
  • Research in Veterinary Science
  • Zoo Biology many more!

How do I sign up?

SDZWA staff are welcome to subscribe. Email with your name, email address, and a request to be added to Animal Welfare Alerts.

How do I access full text articles?

Click on any URL or DOI link in the alert to download a PDF. If you're working offsite without VPN, or no link is included, please email a request to

SDZWA Insider

First place to visit?

SDZWA's intranet portal, Insider Online.

This is the animal welfare information hub for SDZWA team members. Click the links and sign in for access:

SDZWA Research Guides

SDZWA Library Links