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Beautiful Sunbird (Cinnyris pulchellus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Akinpelu AI. 1989. Competition for the nectar of Tecoma stans flowers between Olive Sunbird (Nectarinia olivacea) and insects. Malimbus. 11:3-6.

Bailey I, Nicolson SW. 2016. Do sunbirds use taste to decide how much to drink? Journal of Animal Ecology. 85(2):497-506.

Backhurst GC, Britton HA, Diamond AW, Gerhart JD, Mann CF, Meadows BS, Pearson DJ, Reynolds JF, Turner DA. 1980. Birds of East Africa: their habitat, status and distribution. Britton PL, editor. Nairobi: East Africa Natural History Society.

Bartoš M, Janeček Š. 2014. Pollinator-induced twisting of flowers sidesteps floral architecture constraints. Current Biology. 24(17):R793-R795.

BirdLife International. 2012. Nectarinia pulchella. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2015.4. <>. 26 April 2016.

Birdlife International. 2016. Cinnyris pulchellus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018-1; e.T103799817A94563879 [species assessed 01 Oct 2016; page accessed 23 Oct 2018].

Borrow N, Demey R. 2014. Birds of Western Africa. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.

Chasar A, Loiseau C, ValkiūNas G, Iezhova T, Smith TB, Sehgal RNM. 2009. Prevalence and diversity patterns of avian blood parasites in degraded African rainforest habitats. Molecular Ecology. 18(19):4121-4133.

Cheke RA, Mann CF. 2008. Family Nectariniidae (Sunbirds). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Christie D, editors. Handbook of the birds of the world: penduline-tits to shrikes. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions; c2008. p. 196-321.

Cheke RA, Mann CF, Allen R. 2001. Sunbirds: a guide to the sunbirds, flowerpeckers, spiderhunters and sugarbirds of the world. London (UK): Christopher Helm.

Dial KP, Vaughan TA. 1987. Opportunistic predation on alate termites in Kenya. Biotropica. 19(2):185-187.

Dellinger RM, Eckart CJ. 1991. Captive propagation of the Collared Sunbird. Watchbird (Journal of the American Federation of Aviculture). 18(2):40-45.

Dowsett-Lemaire F, Dowsett RJ. 2014. The birds of Ghana: an atlas and handbook. Belgium: Tauraco Press.

Drent RH. 1970. Functional aspects of incubation in the Herring Gull. Behaviour Supplement. (17):1-132.

Eising CM, Robles R, Lasthuizen M, Groothuis TGG. 2009. Lesser Double-collared Sunbirds Nectarinia chalybea do not compensate for hatching asynchrony by adjusting egg mass or yolk androgens. Journal of Avian Biology. 40(6):635-639.

Elphick J. 2014. The world of birds. Buffalo: Firefly Books Ltd.

Ericson PGP, Johansson US. 2003. Phylogeny of Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 29(1):126-138.

Evans MR. 2003. Survival of male Scarlet-tufted Malachite Sunbirds (Nectarinia johnstoni) on Mount Kenya and the influence of ornamentation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 80(1):125-133.

Fain A, Mariaux J. 1991. Notes sur deux Acariens mesostigmatiques (Acari: Mesostigmata) associes a des Souimangas (Oiseaux, Nectariniidae) de Cote-d'Ivore. Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 98(2):319-324.

Flower S. 1938. Further notes on the duration of life in animals IV, birds. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. A108(2):195-235.

Fry CH, Keith S, Urban EK, editors. 2000. Family Nectariniidae: sunbirds and spiderhunters. The birds of Africa. London: Academic Press; p. 258-261.

Gill F, Donsker D, editors. IOC world bird list, master list. 6.2. Updated 20 April 2016; accessed 17 May 2016.

Gould J. 1990. John Gould's hummingbirds. Ware (UK): Wordsworth Editions, Ltd.

Hobbhahn N, Johnson SD. 2015. Sunbird pollination of the dioecious root parasite Cytinus sanguineus (Cytinaceae). South African Journal of Botany. 99:138-143.

Holland G. 2007. Nectariniidae. Encyclopedia of aviculture. Surrey, British Columbia (Canada): Hancock House.

Jackson CE. 1975. Bird illustrators: some artists in early lithograph. London (UK): H.F. & G. Witherby Ltd.

Janeček Š, Bartoš M, Njabo KY. 2015. Convergent evolution of sunbird pollination systems of Impatiens species in tropical Africa and hummingbird systems of the New World. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 115(1):127-133.

Johansson US, Fjeldså J, Bowie RCK. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships within Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes): A review and a new molecular phylogeny based on three nuclear intron markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 48(3):858-876.

Kaluz S, Literak I, Capek M, Konecny A, Koubek P. 2011. A new mite species of the genus Lasioseius (Acarina: Gamasina, Blattisociidae) associated with the flowers of Englerina lecardii and Chalcomitra senegalensis (Aves: Nectariniidae) in Senegal. International Journal of Acarology. 37(6):511-524.

Koenig L. 1956. Zum vorkommen einiger spinte zwischen Tessalit und Niamey (Französisch-Westafrika). Journal für Ornithologie. 97(4):384-402.

Köhler A, Leseigneur CDC, Verbürgt L, Nicolson SW. 2010. Dilute bird nectars: viscosity constrains food intake by licking in a sunbird. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative & Comparative Physiology. 68(4):R1068.

Köhler A, Verburgt L, Nicolson SW. 2008. Nectar intake of White-bellied Sunbirds (Cinnyris talatala): Can meal size be inferred from feeding duration? Physiological & Biochemical Zoology. 81(5):682-687.

Lauron EJ, Loiseau C, Bowie RCK, Spicer GS, Smith TB, Melo M, Sehgal RNM. 2015. Coevolutionary patterns and diversification of avian malaria parasites in African sunbirds (Family Nectariniidae). Parasitology. 142(05):635-647.

Lederer RJ, Burr C. 2014. Latin for bird lovers : Over 3,000 bird names explored and explained. Portland (OR): Timber Press.

Mackworth-Praed CW, Grant CHB. 1973. Birds of West Central and western Africa. London: Longman, Inc.

Markman S, Yom-Tov Y, Wright J. 1996. The effect of male removal on female parental care in the Orange-tufted Sunbird. Animal Behaviour. 52(3):437-444.

Ollerton J, Nuttman C. 2013. Aggressive displacement of Xylocopa nigrita carpenter bees from flowers of Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae) by territorial male Eastern Olive Sunbirds (Cyanomitra olivacea) in Tanzania. Journal of Pollination Ecology. 11:21-26.

Pauw A, Louw K. 2012. Urbanization drives a reduction in functional diversity in a guild of nectar-feeding birds. Ecology and Society. 17(2).

Peaker M. 1990. Nutritional requirements and diets for hummingbirds and sunbirds. International Zoo Yearbook. 29(1):109-118.

Purchase C, Nicolson S, Fleming P. 2013. Salt intake and regulation in two passerine nectar drinkers: White-bellied Sunbirds and New Holland Honeyeaters. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic & Environmental Physiology. 183(4):501-510.

Riegert J, Fainová D, Antczak M, Sedláček O, Hořák D, Reif J, Pešata M. 2011. Food niche differentiation in two syntopic sunbird species: a case study from the Cameroon Mountains. Journal of Ornithology. 152(4):819.

Sinclair I, Ryan P. 2010. Birds of Africa, south of the Sahara. Cape Town: Struik Nature.

Skead C. 1967. The sunbirds of southern Africa: also the sugarbirds, the white-eyes and the spotted creeper. Cape Town (South Africa): A.A. Balkema.

Stevenson T, Fanshawe J. 2002. Beautiful Sunbird. Birds of East Africa. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.

Tropek R, Bartos M, Padysáková E, Janecek S. 2013. Interference competition between sunbirds and carpenter bees for the nectar of Hypoestes aristata. African Zoology. 48(2):392-394.

UNEP. 2018. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2018 Oct 23].

VanDegrift N. 1989. Care and management of sunbirds. Watchbird (Journal of the American Federation of Aviculture). 16(4):12-14.

Wellmann AE, Downs CT. 2009. A behavioural study of sleep patterns in the Malachite Sunbird, Cape White-eye and Fan-tailed Widowbird. Animal Behaviour. 77(1):61-66.

Williams JG. 1955. A systematic revision and natural history of the Shining Sunbird of Africa. The Condor. 57(5):249-262.

Winkler DW, Billerman SM, Lovette IJ. 2015. Bird families of the world: an invitation to the spectacular diversity of birds. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

Yeh LS. 1954. On two new species of the genus Serticeps (Nematoda: Schistorophidae) from the gizzard of birds. Journal of Helminthology. 28(3-4):165-170.

Zilberman R, Leader N, Moav B, Yom-Tov Y. 2001. Survival of the Orange-tufted Sunbird, Nectarinia osea. Ostrich. 72(1-2):125-126.

Additional Internet Resources

Camera Inquisitive?

Beautiful Sunbird with orange flower

A Beautiful Sunbird, Cinnyris pulchellus, watchful and alert.

Image credit: © António Guerra at Flickr. All rights reserved. Used with permission from the artist.

Image details: Taken 19 November 2012 in Gambia.

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