Skip to Main Content
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance logo
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library logo

Black-tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Anthony A, Foreman D. 1951. Observations on the reproductive cycle of the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). Physiol Zool. 24(3):242–248. doi:10.1086/physzool.24.3.30152118.

Avila-Flores R, Boyce MS, Boutin S. 2010. Habitat selection by prairie dogs in a disturbed landscape at the edge of their geographic range. J Wildl Manag. 74(5):945–953. doi:10.2193/2008-503.

Avila-Flores R, Ceballos G, Villa-Meza A de, List R, Marcé E, Pacheco J, Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa G, Boutin S. 2012. Factors associated with long-term changes in distribution of black-tailed prairie dogs in northwestern Mexico. Biol Conserv. 145(1):54–61. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.10.005.

Bailey V. 1905. Biological survey of Texas. N. Amer. Fauna, no. 25. Washington D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

Bruns Stockrahm DM, Seabloom RW. 1988. Comparative reproductive performance of black-tailed prairie dog populations in North Dakota. J Mammal. 69(1):160–164. doi:10.2307/1381765.

Cassola F. 2016. Cynomys ludovicianus (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2021.1; e.T6091A115080297 (species assessed 2016 Sep 08; page accessed 2021 Jun 02). doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T6091A22261137.en.

Cheatheam CK. 1977. Density and distribution of the black-tailed prairie dog in Texas. Tex J Sci. 29:33–40.

Connell LC, Scasta JD, Porensky LM. 2018. Prairie dogs and wildfires shape vegetation structure in a sagebrush grassland more than does rest from ungulate grazing. Ecosphere. 9(8):e02390. doi:10.1002/ecs2.2390.

Eads DA, Biggins DE. 2008. Aboveground predation by an American badger (Taxidea taxus) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). West North Am Nat. 68(3):396–401. doi:10.3398/1527-0904(2008)68[396:APBAAB]2.0.CO;2.

Eads DA, Biggins DE. 2015. Plague bacterium as a transformer species in prairie dogs and the grasslands of western North America. Conservation Biology. 29(4):1086–1093. doi:10.1111/cobi.12498.

Eads DA, Biggins DE, Eads SL. 2017. Grooming behaviors of black‐tailed prairie dogs are influenced by flea parasitism, conspecifics, and proximity to refuge. Ebensperger L, editor. Ethology. 123(12):924–932. doi:10.1111/eth.12690.

Eads DA, Biggins DE, Jachowski DS, Livieri TM, Millspaugh JJ, Forsberg M. 2010a. Morning ambush attacks by black-footed ferrets on emerging prairie dogs. Ethology Ecology & Evolution. 22(4):345–352. doi:10.1080/03949370.2010.510037.

Eads DA, Chipault JG, Biggins DE, Livieri TM, Millspaugh JJ. 2010b. Nighttime aboveground movements by prairie dogs on colonies inhabited by black-footed ferrets. Western North American Naturalist. 70(2):261–265. doi:10.3398/064.070.0218.

Eads DA, Hague MTJ, Zoubek CG. 2012. American badger (Taxidea taxus) uses covert reconnaissance to ambush a black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). Southwest Nat. 57(4):463–464. doi:10.1894/0038-4909-57.4.463.

Facka AN, Roemer GW, Mathis VL, Kam M, Geffen E. 2010. Drought leads to collapse of black-tailed prairie dog populations reintroduced to the Chihuahuan Desert. J Wildl Manag. 74(8):1752–1762. doi:10.2193/2009-208.

Garrett MG, Franklin WL. 1988. Behavioral ecology of dispersal in the black-tailed prairie dog. J Mammal. 69(2):236–250. doi:10.2307/1381375.

Grady RM, Hoogland JL. 1986. Why do male black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) give a mating call? Anim Behav. 34:108–112. doi:10.1016/0003-3472(86)90012-6.

Grassel SM, Rachlow JL, Williams CJ. 2016. Reproduction by black-tailed prairie dogs and black-footed ferrets: effects of weather and food availability. West North Am Nat. 76(4):405–416. doi:10.3398/064.076.0403.

Hale SL, Koprowski JL, Archer SR. 2020. Black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) reintroduction can limit woody plant proliferation in grasslands. Front Ecol Evol. 8:233. doi:10.3389/fevo.2020.00233.

Hall ER. 1981. Cynomys ludovicianus, black-tailed prairie dog. In: The mammals of North America. Vol. 1. New York (NY): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. p. 411–412.

Hoogland JL. 1982. Prairie dogs avoid extreme inbreeding. Science. 215(4540):1639–1641. doi:10.1126/science.215.4540.1639.

Hoogland JL. 1983. Nepotism and alarm calling in the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). Anim Behav. 31(2):472–479. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(83)80068-2.

Hoogland JL. 1985. Infanticide in prairie dogs: lactating females kill offspring of close kin. Science. 230(4729):1037–1040. doi:10.1126/science.230.4729.1037.

Hoogland JL. 1986. Nepotism in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) varies with competition but not with kinship. Anim Behav. 34:263–270. doi:10.1016/0003-3472(86)90031-X.

Hoogland JL. 1995. The black-tailed prairie dog: social life of a burrowing mammal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hoogland JL. 1996. Cynomys ludovicianus. Mamm Species. 535:1–10. doi:10.2307/3504202.

Hoogland JL. 2013. Prairie dogs disperse when all close kin have disappeared. Science. 339(6124):1205–1207. doi:10.1126/science.1231689.

Hoogland JL, Foltz DW. 1982. Variance in male and female reproductive success in a harem-polygynous mammal, the black-tailed prairie dog (Sciuridae: Cynomys ludovicianus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol. 11(3):155–163. doi:10.1007/BF00300058.

Johnson GE. 1927. Observations on young prairie-dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) born in the laboratory. J Mammal. 8(2):110–115. doi:10.2307/1373643.

Kelso LH. 1939. Food habits of prairie dogs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dep Agric Circ. 529:1–15.

King JA. 1955. Social behavior, social organization, and population dynamics in a black-tailed prairie-dog town in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Contributions from the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology ; no. 67. Ann Arbor (MI): University of Michigan.

Knowles CJ. 1986. Some relationships of black-tailed prairie dogs to livestock grazing. Gt Basin Nat. 46(2):198–203.

Koford CB. 1958. Prairie dogs, whitefaces, and blue grama. Wildl Monogr. 1958(3):3–78.

Koprowski J, Goldstein E, Bennett K, Pereira C. 2016. Black-tailed prairie dog Cynomys ludovicianus. In: Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA, editors. Handbook of the mammals of the world: lagomorphs and rodents I (volume 6). Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions. p. 822-823.

Lehmer EM, Van Horne B, Kulbartz B, Florant GL. 2001. Facultative torpor in free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). J Mammal. 82(2):551–557. doi:10.1093/jmammal/82.2.551.

Licht DS. 2010. Observations of bobcats, Lynx rufus, hunting black-tailed prairie dogs, Cynomys ludovicianus, in western South Dakota. Can Field-Nat. 124(3):209. doi:10.22621/cfn.v124i3.1075.

Licht DS, Sanchez KD. 1993. Association of black-tailed prairie dog colonies with cattle point attractants in the northern Great Plains. Gt Basin Nat. 53(4):385–389.

Livieri TM, Licht DS, Moynahan BJ, Mcmillan PD. 2013. Prairie dog aboveground aggressive behavior towards black-footed ferrets. The American Midland Naturalist. 169(2):422–425. doi:10.1674/0003-0031-169.2.422.

Manno TG, Dobson FS, Hoogland JL, Foltz DW. 2007. Social group fission and gene dynamics among black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). J Mammal. 88(2):448–456. doi:10.1644/06-MAMM-A-099R1.1.

Martínez-Estévez L, Balvanera P, Pacheco J, Ceballos G. 2013. Prairie dog decline reduces the supply of ecosystem services and leads to desertification of semiarid grasslands. PLoS ONE. 8(10):e75229. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075229.

Miller B, Ceballos G, Reading R. 1994. The prairie dog and biotic diversity. Conserv Biol. 8(3):677–681. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1994.08030677.x.

Miller SD, Cully JF. 2001. Conservation of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). J Mammal. 82(4):889–893. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2001)082<0889:COBTPD>2.0.CO;2.

Osborn B. 1942. Prairie dogs in shinnery (oak scrub) savannah. Ecology. 23(1):110–115. doi:10.2307/1930880.

Ponce-Guevara E, Davidson A, Sierra-Corona R, Ceballos G. 2016. Interactive effects of black-tailed prairie dogs and cattle on shrub encroachment in a desert grassland ecosystem. PLOS ONE. 11(5):e0154748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154748.

Reading RP, Beissinger SR, Grensten JJ, Clark TW. 1989. Attributes of black-tailed prairie dog colonies in northcentral Montana, with management recommendations for conservation of biodiversity. In: Clark TW, Hinckley D, Rich T, editors. The prairie dog ecosystem: Managing for biological diversity. Billings (MO): Montana Bureau of Land Management. p. 13–27.

Roemer DM, Forrest SC. 1996. Prairie dog poisoning in northern Great Plains: an analysis of programs and policies. Environ Manage. 20(3):349–359. doi:10.1007/BF01203843.

Roth JD. 2019. Sylvatic plague management and prairie dogs – a meta‐analysis. J Vector Ecol. 44(1):1–10. doi:10.1111/jvec.12323.

Russell RE, Tripp DW, Rocke TE. 2019. Differential plague susceptibility in species and populations of prairie dogs. Ecol Evol. 9(20):11962–11971. doi:10.1002/ece3.5684.

Stephens T, Wilson SC, Cassidy F, Bender D, Gummer D, Smith DHV, Lloyd N, McPherson JM, Moehrenschlager A. 2018. Climate change impacts on the conservation outlook of populations on the poleward periphery of species ranges: a case study of Canadian black‐tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Glob Change Biol. 24(2):836–847. doi:10.1111/gcb.13922.

Summers CA, Linder RL. 1978. Food habits of the black-tailed prairie dog in western South Dakota. J Range Manag. 31(2):134. doi:10.2307/3897663.

Trefry HE, Holroyd GL. 2012. An extra-limital population of black-tailed prairie dogs, Cynomys ludovicianus, in Central Alberta. Can Field-Nat. 126(1):46. doi:10.22621/cfn.v126i1.1296.

UNEP. 2021. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2021 Jul 13].

USFWS. 2004. Finding for the resubmitted petition to list the black-tailed prairie dog as threatened. Fed Regist. 69(159):51217–51226.

USFWS. 2021. Black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus). ECOS: Environmental Conservation Online System [Internet database]. Washington D.C.: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service [accessed 2021 Jul 14].

Vosburgh TC, Irby LR. 1998. Effects of recreational shooting on prairie dog colonies. J Wildl Manag. 62(1):363. doi:10.2307/3802300.

Whicker AD, Detling JK. 1988. Ecological consequences of prairie dog disturbances. BioScience. 38(11):778–785. doi:10.2307/1310787.

Wilson-Henjum GE, Job JR, McKenna MF, Shannon G, Wittemyer G. 2019. Alarm call modification by prairie dogs in the presence of juveniles. J Ethol. 37(2):167–174. doi:10.1007/s10164-018-0582-8.

Young SP. 1944. Longevity and other data on a male and a female pairie dog kept as pets (In: general notes, p. 307-319). J Mammal. 25(3):317–319. doi:10.2307/1374705.

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2021. [updated 2021 Jul 26; accessed 2021 Aug 03].

Additional Internet Resources

SDZWA Library Links