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Dwarf Caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Ali SH, Rampersad-Ali N, Murphy JC. 2016. The discovery of Cuvier’s dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Reptilia: Alligatoridae) in Trinidad. Living World. 2016:41–42.

Alves RRN, Rosa IL. 2006. From cnidarians to mammals: the use of animals as remedies in fishing communities in NE Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol. 107(2):259–276. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.007.

Botero-Arias R. 2007. Padrões de movimento, uso de microhábitat e dieta do jacaré-paguá, Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Crocodilia: Alligatoridae), em uma floresta de paleovárzea ao sul do rio Solimões, Amazônia Central, Brasil [M.S. thesis]. [Manaus (Brazil)]: National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA).

Campos Z. 2015. Size of caimans killed by humans at a hydroelectric dam in the Madeira River, Brazilian Amazon. Herpetozoa. 28(1–2):101–104.

Campos Z, Coutinho M, Abercrombie C. 1995. Size structure and sex-ratio of dwarf caiman in the Serra-Amolar, Pantanal, Brazil. Herpetol J. 5:321–322.

Campos Z, Magnusson WE. 2013. Thermal relations of dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus, in a hillside stream: evidence for an unusual thermal niche among crocodilians. J Therm Biol. 38(1):20–23. doi:10.1016/j.jtherbio.2012.09.004.

Campos Z, Magnusson WE. 2016. Density and biomass estimates by removal for an Amazonian crocodilian, Paleosuchus palpebrosus. PLOS ONE. 11(5):e0156406. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156406.

Campos Z, Magnusson WE, Marques V. 2013. Growth rates of Paleosuchus palpebrosus at the southern limit of its range. Herpetologica. 69(4):405–410. doi:10.1655/HERPETOLOGICA-D-13-00005.

Campos Z, Magnusson WE, Muniz F. 2019. Cuvier’s smooth-fronted caiman Paleosuchus palpebrosus. In: Manolis SC, Stevenson C, editors. Crocodiles: status survey and conservation action plan. 5th Edition. Darwin: IUCN Crocodile Specialist Group.

Campos Z, Marioni B, Farias I, Verdade LM, Bassetti L, Coutinho ME, de Mendonça SHST, Vieira TQ, Magnusson WE. 2013. Avaliação do risco de extinção do jacaré-paguá: Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier, 1807) no Brasil. Biodiversidade Bras. 3(1):40–47.

Campos Z, Mourão G. 2006. Conservation status of the dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus, in the region surrounding Pantanal. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 25:9-10. Available at:

Campos Z, Mourão G, Magnusson WE. 2017. The effect of dam construction on the movement of dwarf caimans, Paleosuchus trigonatus and Paleosuchus palpebrosus, in Brazilian Amazonia. PLOS ONE. 12(11):e0188508. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0188508.

Campos Z, Muniz F. 2019. Multiple uses of Cuvier's dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus, in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Croc Spec Group Newsl. 38:5-8. Available at:

Campos Z, Muniz FL, Farias IP, Hrbek T. 2015. Conservation status of the dwarf caiman Paleosuchus palpebrosus in the region of the Araguaia-Tocantins basin, Brazil. Crocodile Spec Group Newsl. 34:4–8. Available at:

Campos Z, Muniz F, Magnusson W. 2012. Dead Paleosuchus on roads in Brazil. Crocodile Spec Group Newsl. 31(4):12–14. Available at:

Campos Z, Sanaiotti T. 2006. Paleosuchus palpebrosus (dwarf caiman) nesting. Herpetol Rev. 37(1):81.

Campos Z, Sanaiotti T, Magnusson W. 2010. Maximum size of dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier, 1807), in the Amazon and habitats surrounding the Pantanal, Brazil. Amphib-Reptil. 31(3):439–442. doi:10.1163/156853810791769392.

Campos Z, Sanaiotti T, Marques V, Magnusson WE. 2015. Geographic variation in clutch size and reproductive season of the dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus, in Brazil. J Herpetol. 49(1):95–98. doi:10.1670/11-224.

Campos Z, Sanaiotti T, Muniz F, Farias I, Magnusson WE. 2012. Parental care in the dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus Cuvier, 1807 (Reptilia: Crocodilia: Alligatoridae). J Nat Hist. 46(47–48):2979–2984. doi:10.1080/00222933.2012.724723.

Carvalho EAR, Veras Batista VBG. 2013. Distribution and abundance of Caiman latirostris and Paleosuchus palpebrosus at Grande Serao Veredas National Park, Central Brazil. Herpetol Conserv Biol. 8(3):771–777.

Crump M. 2015. Eye of newt and toe of frog, adder’s fork and lizard’s leg. Chicago (IL): The University of Chicago Press.

Drumheller SK, Darlington J, Vliet KA. 2019. Surveying death roll behavior across Crocodylia. Ethol Ecol Evol. 31(4):329–347. doi:10.1080/03949370.2019.1592231.

Dutra-Araujo D, Marioni B, de Fraga R, da Silveira R. 2017. Snakes as prey of Cuvier’s dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus: Alligatoridae), with a new observation from central Amazonia, Brazil. Herpetol Notes. 10:169–170.

Fleishman LJ, Howland HC, Howland MJ, Rand AS, Davenport ML. 1988. Crocodiles don’t focus underwater. J Comp Physiol A. 163(4):441–443. doi:10.1007/BF00604898.

Grigg G, Kirshner D. 2015. Biology and evolution of crocodylians. Melbourne (Australia): CSIRO Publishing.

Hrbek T, Vasconcelos WR, Rebelo G, Farias IP. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of South American alligatorids and the caiman of Madeira River. J Exp Zool Part Ecol Genet Physiol. 309A(10):588–599. doi:10.1002/jez.430.

Kalin JA. 1933. Beitrage zur vergleichenden osteologie des Crocodilidenschadels. Zool. Jahrb. Anat. 57: 535-714.

King FW, Videz-Roca DH. 1989. The caimans of Bolivia: a preliminary report on a CITES and Centro de Desarrollo Forestal sponsored survey of species distribution and status. 10th working meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. Gland (Switzerland): IUCN; p. 128-155.

Kwak ML, Foo M, Pocklington K, Hsu C-D, Cheong W, How CB, Shunari M, Tahir MG. 2019. Tick-crocodilian interactions: a review, with the first record of tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation in the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), and a concise host-parasite index. Exp Appl Acarol. 78(1):127–132. doi:10.1007/s10493-019-00378-0.

Magnusson WE. 1985. Habitat selection, parasites and injuries in Amazonian crocodilians. Amazoniana. 9(2):193–204.

Magnusson WE. 1989. Paleosuchus. In: Crocodiles: their ecology, management and conservation. Proceedings of the 8th working meeting of the IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. Gland (Switzerland): IUCN. p. 101–109.

Magnusson WE. 1992. Paleosuchus palpebrosus. In: Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (CAAR). Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

Magnusson WE, Campos Z. 2010. Cuvier’s smooth-fronted caiman Paleosuchus palpebrosus. In: Manolis SC, Stevenson C, editors. Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. 3rd ed. Darwin: IUCN. p. 40–42.

Magnusson WE, Campos Z, Muniz F. 2019. Paleosuchus palpebrosus, dwarf caiman. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2019.3; e.T46587A3009946 (species assessed 2018 Apr 30; page accessed 2019 Dec 23). doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T46587A3009946.en.

Magnusson WE, da Silva EV, Lima AP. 1987. Diets of Amazonian crocodilians. J Herpetol. 21(2):85. doi:10.2307/1564468.

Marzola M, Russo J, Mateus O. 2015. Identification and comparison of modern and fossil crocodilian eggs and eggshell structures. Hist Biol. 27(1):115–133. doi:10.1080/08912963.2013.871009.

McHenry CR, Clausen PD, Daniel WJT, Meers MB, Pendharkar A. 2006. Biomechanics of the rostrum in crocodilians: a comparative analysis using finite-element modeling. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 288A(8):827–849. doi:10.1002/ar.a.20360.

Medem F. 1971. The reproduction of the dwarf caiman Paleosuchus palpebrosus. In: Crocodiles. Proceedings of the first working meeting of crocodile specialists. Gland (Switzerland): IUCN. p. 159–165.

Medem FJ. 1958. The crocodilian genus Paleosuchus. Fieldiana Zool. 39:227–247.

Medem F. 1967. El genero Paleosuchus en Amazonia. Atas Simpósio Biota Amazonica (Limnologia) 3:141–162.

Medem F. 1981. Los crocodylia de Sur America. Vol. 1. Los crocodilian de Colombia. Bogota: Colciencias.

Medem F. 1983. Los crocodylia de Sur America. Vol. 2. Bogota: Colciencias.

Milan J, Kofoed J, Bromley RG. 2010. Crocodylian-chelonian carnivory: bite traces of dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus, in red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta, carapaces. Crocodyle Tracks Traces N M Mus Nat Hist Sci Bull. 51:195–199.

Morais DH, Strussmann C, de Carchlho VT, Kawashita-Ribeiro RA. 2010. First record of Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing Paleosuchus palpebrosus Cuvier, 1807 (Reptilia: Crocodylidae), in the western border of Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Herpetol Notes. 3:133.

Muniz F, Bittencourt PS, Farias IP, Hrbek T, Campos Z. 2015. New records on occurrence of Paleosuchus in the Branco River Basin, Roraima State, Brazil. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 34:8-10. Available at:

Muniz FL, Campos Z, Hernández Rangel SM, Martínez JG, Souza BC, De Thoisy B, Botero-Arias R, Hrbek T, Farias IP. 2018. Delimitation of evolutionary units in Cuvier’s dwarf caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier, 1807): insights from conservation of a broadly distributed species. Conserv Genet. 19(3):599–610. doi:10.1007/s10592-017-1035-6.

Neill WT. 1971. The last of the ruling reptiles: alligators, crocodiles, and their kin. New York (NY): Columbia University Press.

da Nóbrega Alves RR, da Silva Vieira WL, Santana GG. 2008. Reptiles used in traditional folk medicine: conservation implications. Biodivers Conserv. 17(8):2037–2049. doi:10.1007/s10531-007-9305-0.

Oaks JR. 2011. A time-calibrated species tree of Crocodylia reveals a recent radiation of the true crocodiles. Evolution. 65(11):3285–3297. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01373.x.

Pacheco Alvarez AD. 2009. Distribución, abundancia y estructura poblacional del Babo Morichalero (Paleosuchus palpebrosus) en los Llanos Orientales del Estado Anzoátegui [B.S. thesis]. [Caracus]: University of Central Venezuela (Universidad Central de Venezuela).

Paolilla A, Gorzula S. 1985. Paleosuchus palpebrosus (dwarf caiman) migration. Herpetol Rev. 16(1):27.

Rebelo GH, Lugli L. 2001. Distribution and abundance of four caiman species (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae) in Jaú National Park, Amazonas, Brazil. Rev Biol Trop. 49(3–4):1095–1109.

Roberto I. 2014. Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier’s smooth-fronted caiman). Habitat use. Herpetol Rev. 45(1):121–122.

Roos J, Aggarwal RK, Janke A. 2007. Extended mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses yield new insight into crocodylian evolution and their survival of the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 45(2):663–673. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.06.018.

Salas-Gismondi R, Flynn JJ, Baby P, Tejada-Lara JV, Wesselingh FP, Antoine P-O. 2015. A Miocene hyperdiverse crocodylian community reveals peculiar trophic dynamics in proto-Amazonian mega-wetlands. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci. 282(1804):20142490. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.2490.

Stevenson C. 2019. Crocodiles of the world: a complete guide to alligators, caimans, crocodiles and gharials. London (England): New Holland Publishers.

Sues H-D. 2019. The rise of reptiles: 320 million years of evolution. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press.

Thorbjarnarson JB. 1992. Dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus). In: Messel H, King FW, Ross JP, editors. Crocodiles: an action plan for their conservation. Gland (Switzerland): IUCN. p. 89–90.

Trutnau L, Sommerlad R. 2006. Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier, 1807), Cuvier’s dwarf caiman. In: Crocodilians: their natural history & captive husbandry. Frankfurt am Main (Germany): Chimaira. p. 429–434.

UNEP. 2019. Paleosuchus palpebrosus. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]; [accessed 2019 Dec 31].

Weigl R. 2014. Longevity of crocodilians in captivity. Int Zoo News. 61:363–373.

Wylie D. 2013. Crocodile. London (England): Reaktion Books.

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2020. [updated 2020 Jan 17; accessed 2020 Jan 28].

Additional Internet Resources

Dwarf Caiman

dwarf caiman at san diego zoo

Dwarf caimans at the San Diego Zoo.

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