Skip to Main Content
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance logo
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library logo

Extinct American Lion (Panthera atrox) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources

extinct American Lion (Panthera atrox)


Anderson, E., 1984. Who's who in the Pleistocene: A mammalian bestiary. In In P. Martin, and R. Klein, eds, Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. pp. 40- 89.

Anyonge, W., 1993. Body mass in large extant and extinct carnivores. Journal of Zoology, London. 231:339-350.

Barry, J. C., 1987. Large carnivores (Canidae, Hyaenidae, Felidae) from Laetoli. In Leakey, M. and Harris, J. (Eds.), Laetoli: a Pliocene site in northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 235-258.

Beebe, B., T. Hulland 1988. Mandibular and dental abnormalities of two Pleistocene American lions (Panther leo atrox) from Yukon Territory. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 52:468-472.

Burger, J., W. Rosendahl, O. Loreille, H. Hemmer, T. Eriksson, A. Götherström, J. Hiller, M. Collins, T. Wess, K. Alt, 2004. Molecular phylogeny of the extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 841-849.

Cerling, T., J. Ehleringer, J. Harris, 1998. Carbon dioxide starvation, the development of C-4 ecosystem, and mammalian evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Bulletin Biological Science. 353:159-170.

Clottes, J. (Ed.) 2003. Return to Chauvet Cave. London: Thames & Hudson.

Feranec, R., 2004. How to grow a saber-tooth: felid canine growth rates. Abstract. Annual meeting of the Geological Society of America. Denver.

Gilbert, B., L. Martin, 1984. Late Pleistocene fossils of Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming, and the climatic model of extinction. In P. Martin, and R. Klein, eds, Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. University of Arizona Press, Tucson pp. 138 -147.

Guthrie, R. D, 1990. Frozen fauna of the mammoth steppe, the story of Blue Babe. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Jefferson, G. 1992. The M1 in Panthera leo atrox, an indicator of sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic age. Current Research in the Pleistocene 9:102-105.

Jefferson, G., 2001. The American Lion. In: J. Harris (ed), Rancho La Brea: Death Trap and Treasure Trove. Terra 30(2): 33. Los Angeles Natural History Museum Foundation. p. 28.

Kurtén, B, 1968. Pleistocene mammals of Europe. Aldine Publishing, Chicago.

Kurtén, B., 1985. The Pleistocene lion of Beringia. Annals of Zoology Fennici 22:117-121.

Kurtén, B., and E. Anderson, 1980. Pleistocene mammals of North America. Columbia University Press. New York.

Meachen-Samuels J.A. and W. J. Binder. 2009. Sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic growth in the American lion and sabertoothed cat from Rancho La Brea. Journal of Zoology 280(3):271-279.

Owen, P., 2002. Panthera leo. Digital Morphology. Retrieved November 4, 2008 from

Rothschild, B. and L. Martin, 2003. Frequency of pathology in a large natural sample from Natural Trap Cave with special remarks on erosive disease in the Pleistocene. Reumatismo. 55(1):58-65. Retrieved from

Shaw, C., 2005. Personal communication regarding size of Panthera atrox skeletal mount at Page Museum.

Therrien, F., 2005. Mandibular force profiles of extant carnivorans and implications for the feeding behaviour of extinct predators. Journal of Zoology, London 267:249-270.

Turner, A., 1997. The big cats and their fossil relatives: An illustrated guide to their evolution and natural history. Columbia University Press, New York.

Whitmore, F., H. Foster, 1967. Panthera atrox (Mammalia: Felidae) from Central Alaska. Journal of Paleontology 41(1):247-251.s

Wozencraft, W.C., 2005. Order Carnivora. In: Wilson, D. and D. Reeder (eds) Mammal species of the world. pp. 532-548.

Yamaguchi, N., A. Cooper, L. Werdelin, D. Macdonald 2004. Evolution of the mane and group-living in the lion (Panthera leo): a review. Journal of Zoology 263:329-342.

Additional Internet Resources

Included: where to view fossils in museums

SDZWA Library Links