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Extinct Short-faced Bear (Actodus spp.) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Agnarsson, I., M. Kuntner, L. May-Collado 2010. Dogs, cats, and kin: A molecular species-level phylogeny of Carnivora. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54:726-745.

Barnes, I, P. Matheus, B. Shapiro, D. Jensen, A. Cooper 2002. Dynamics of Pleistocene population extinctions in Beringian brown bears. Science 295 (5563):2267-2270.

Baryshnikov, G., L. D. Agenbroad, and J. I. Mead. 1994. Carnivores from the Mammoth Site Hot Springs, South Dakota. Pp. 306–358 in A decade of field and laboratory research in paleontology, geology and paleontology. The Hot Springs Mammoth Site (L. D. Agenbroad and J. L. Mead, eds.). The Mammoth Site of South Dakota, Hot Springs.

Bocherens, H., D. Drucker, D. Billiou, D. Jeneste, J. J. van der Plicht 2006. Bears and humans in Chauvet Cave (Vallon-Pont-d'Arc, Ardèche, France); insights from stable isotopes and radiocarbon dating of bone collagen. Journal of Human Evolution. 50:370-376.

Christiansen, P. 1999. What size were Arctodus simus and Ursus spelaeus (Carnivora:Ursidae)? Ann. Zoologica. Fennici 36:93-102.

Craighead, L. 2003. Bears of the World. Voyager Press.

Figueirido, B., P. Palmqvist, J. Pérez-Claros 2009. Ecomorphological correlates of craniodental variation in bears and paleobiological implications for extinct taxa: an approach based on geometric morphometrics. Journal of Zoology 277(1):70-80.

Figueirido, B., J. Perez-Carlos, V. Torregrosa, A. Martin-Serra, P. Palmovist. 2010. Demythologizing Arctodus simus, the 'short-faced' long-legged and predaceous bear that never was. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(1):262-275.

Garshelis, D.L. 2009. Family Ursidae (Bears) In: Mittermeier, R.A. and D.E. Wilson (Eds) Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol 1. Carnivores. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Gillette, D. D. and D. B. Madsen. 1992. The short-faced bear Arctodus simus from the late Quaternary in the Wasatch Mountains of central Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 12: 107-112.

___________________________. 1993. The Columbian mammoth, Mammuthus columbi, from the Wasatch Mountains of Central Utah. Journal of Paleontology 67:669-680.

Hunt, R. 1998. Ursidae. In: Janis, C. and K. Scott Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America. Cambridge University Press. pp. 174-1189.

Kurtén, B. 1967. Pleistocene bears of North America. 2. Genus Arctodus, short-faced bears. Acta Zoologica Fennica, 117:1-115.

________. 1968. Pleistocene Mammals of Europe. Aldine Pubkishing, Chicago, Ill. .

Kurtén, B. and E. Anderson. 1980. Pleistocene Mammals of North America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Li, Y., Y. Li., O. Ryder, Y. Zhang. 2007. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:198

McKenna, M. and S. Bell 1997. Ursidae in Classification of mammals above the species level. Columbia University Press. pp. 247-251

Matheus, P. 1995. Diet and co-ecology of Pleistocene short-faced bears and brown bears in eastern Beringia. Quarternary Research 44:447.

Matheus, P., M. Kunz, W. Payton 2000. Isotopic indicators of environmental aridity and paleodiets of Late Quaternary mammals in Eastern Beringia. Abstract from Arctic Science 2000 Symposium - Crossing Borders: Science and Community Session, American Association for the Advancement of Science & Yukon Science Institute.Sept 2000.

Richards, M. M. Pacher, M. Stiller, J. Quilès, M. Hofreiter, S. Constantin, J. Zilhao, E. Trinkaus 2008. Isotopic evidence for omnivory among European cave bears: late Pleistocene Ursus spelaeus from the Pestera cu Oase, Romania. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:600-604.

Ruxton, G. 1995. Diet and co-ecology of Pleistocene short-faced bears and brown bears in eastern Beringia. Quaternary Research 44(3):447-453.

Ruxton, G. and D. Houston 2004. Obligate vertebrate scavengers must be large soaring fliers. Journal of Theoretical Biology 228:431-436.

Salesa, M. J., G. Siliceo, M. Antton, J. Abella, P. Montoya, J. Morales 2006 Anatomy of the “false thumb” of Tremarctos ornatus (Carnivora, Ursidae, Tremarctinae): phylogenetic and functional implications. Estudios Geológicos 62, 389-394.

Schubert, B. and J. Kaufmann 2003. Late Pleistocene giant short-faced bears, mammoths, and large carcass scavenging in the Saltville Valley of Virginia, USA. Boreas: An international journal of Quaternary Research. 38:(3):482-492.

Scott, E. and S. Cox 1993. Arctodus simus (Cope, 1879) from Riverside County, California. PaleoBios, 15(2):27-36

Sorkin, B. 2006. Ecomorphology of the giant short-faced bears Agriotherium and Arctodus. Historical Biology 18, 1-20

Tedford, R. and J. Martin 2001. Plionarctos, a tremarctine bear (Ursidae: Carnivora) from western North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21(2):311-321.

Van Valkenburgh, B. 1990. Skeletal and dental predictors of body mass in carnivores. In: Damuth J., B. MacFadden (editors) Body size in mammalian paleobiology: Estimation and biological implications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 181-205.

Wayne, R., R. Benveniste, D. Janczewski, S. O'Brien 1989. Molecular and biochemical evolution of the carnivora. In: J. L. Gittleman (ed.), Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. pp. 465-494

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