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Fennec Fox (Vulpes zerda) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Arnold E. 2013. Like water flowing. Kenyon Rev. 35:115-128.

Asa CS, Cuzin F. 2013. Vulpes zerda Fennec fox. In: Mammals of Africa. Volume V: carnivores, pangolins, equids and rhinoceroses. New York (NY): Bloomsbury. p. 74–77.

Asa CS, Valdespino C. 1998. Canid reproductive biology: an integration of proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes. Am Zool. 38(1):251–259. doi:10.1093/icb/38.1.251.

Asa CS, Valdespino C, Cuzin F. 2004. Fennec fox Vulpes zerda (Zimmermann, 1780). In: Sillero-Zubiri C, Hoffmann M, Macdonald DW, editors. Canids: foxes, wolves, jackals and dogs. Status survey and conservation action plan. Gland (Switzerland): IUCN. p. 205–209.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Bauman KL. 2002. Fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) North American regional studbook (2nd edition). St. Louis (MI): Saint Louis Zoological Park.

Bekoff M, Diamond J, Mitton JB. 1981. Life-history patterns and sociality in canids: body size, reproduction, and behavior. Oecologia. 50(3):386–390. doi:10.1007/BF00344981.

de Bonis L, Peigné S, Likius A, Mackaye HT, Vignaud P, Brunet M. 2007. The oldest African fox (Vulpes riffautae n. sp., Canidae, Carnivora) recovered in late Miocene deposits of the Djurab desert, Chad. Naturwissenschaften. 94(7):575–580. doi:10.1007/s00114-007-0230-6.

Brahmi K, Khechekhouche EA, Mostefaoui O, Doumandji S, Baziz B, Aulagnier S. 2012. First quantitative data on the diet of the fennec fox, Vulpes zerda (Canidae, Carnivora), in Algeria. Folia Zool. 61(1):61–70. doi:10.25225/fozo.v61.i1.a10.2012.

Brito JC, Acosta AL, Álvares F, Cuzin F. 2009. Biogeography and conservation of taxa from remote regions: an application of ecological-niche based models and GIS to North-African canids. Biol Conserv. 142(12):3020–3029. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2009.08.001.

Bueler LE. 1973. Fennec (Fennecus zerda). In: Wild dogs of the world. New York (NY): Stein & Day. p. 182–185.

Burruss ND. 2014. The environmental constraints of Rüppell’s (Vulpes rueppellii), pale (V. pallida) and fennec foxes (V. zerda), and golden jackals (Canis aurens) within the Termit & Tin Toumma Nature and Cultural Reserve and an analysis of pale fox food habits [M.S. thesis]. Las Cruces (NM): New Mexico State University.

Castelló JR. 2018. Fennec fox Vulpes zerda. In: Canids of the world: wolves, wild dogs, foxes, jackals, coyotes, and their relatives. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press. p. 204–205.

Choi J-W, Lee H-K, Kim S-H, Kim Y-H, Lee K-K, Lee M-H, Oem J-K. 2014. Canine adenovirus Type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda). J Zoo Wildl Med. 45(4):947–950. doi:10.1638/2013-0286.1.

Coetzee CG. 1977. Order Carnivora. Part 8. In: Meester J, Setzer HW, editors. The mammals of Africa: an identification manual. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 1–42.

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Cuzin F. 1996. Réparation actuelle et statut des grands mammifères sauvages du Maroc (primates, carnivores, artiodactyles). Mammalia. 60(1):101–124. doi:10.1515/mamm.1996.60.1.101.

Cuzin F. 2003. Les grands Mammifères du Maroc meridional (Haut Atlas, Anti Atlas, Sahara). Distribution, écologie et conservation [The large mammals of southern Morocco (High Atlas, Anti Atlas, Sahara). Distribution, ecology and conservation]. PhD thesis, Université Montepellier II, France.

Dempsey JL, Hanna SJ, Asa CS, Bauman KL. 2009. Nutrition and behavior of fennec foxes (Vulpes zerda). Veterinary Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 12(2):299–312. doi:10.1016/j.cvex.2009.01.004.

Dolan JM. 1993. The mammal collection of the Zoological Society of San Diego: a historical perspective. Part VIII: Canidae to Ailuropodidae. Zool. Garten N. F. 63:335-380.

Dorst J, Dandelot P. 1972. Fennec Fennecus zerda (Zimmermann). In: A field guide to the larger mammals of Africa. London (England): Collins. p. 100–101.

Dragesco-Joffé A. 1993. La view sauvage au Sahara [The wild view in the Sahara]. Lausanne (Switzerland): Delachaux et Niestlé.

Duke Becker SE, Thomas R, Trifonov VA, Wayne RK, Graphodatsky AS, Breen M. 2011. Anchoring the dog to its relatives reveals new evolutionary breakpoints across 11 species of the Canidae and provides new clues for the role of B chromosomes. Chromosome Res. 19(6):685–708. doi:10.1007/s10577-011-9233-4.

Ewer RF. 1973. The carnivores. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press.

Fleming PJS, Nolan H, Jackson SM, Ballard G-A, Bengsen A, Brown WY, Meek PD, Mifsud G, Pal SK, Sparkes J. 2017. Roles for the Canidae in food webs reviewed: Where do they fit? Food Webs. 12:14–34. doi:10.1016/j.fooweb.2017.03.001.

Gangloff L. 1972. Breeding fennec foxes (Fennecus zerda) at Strasbourg Zoo. Int Zoo Yearb. 12(1):115–116. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1972.tb02289.x.

Gauthier-Pilters H. 1962. Beobachtungen an feneks (Fennecus zerda Zimm.) [Observations on fennecs (Fennecus zerda Zimm.)]. Z Für Tierpsychol. 19(4):440–464. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1962.tb00783.x.

Gauthier-Pilters H. 1967. The fennec. Afr Wildl. 21:117–125.

Geffen E, Girard I. 2003. Behavioral and physiological adaptations of foxes to hot arid environments: comparing Saharo-Arabian and North American species. In: Sovada MA, Carbyn L, editors. The swift fox: ecology and conservation of swift foxes in a changing world. Regina (Canada): Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina. p. 223–229.

Geffen E, Mercure A, Girman DJ, Macdonald DW, Wayne RK. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships of the fox-like canids: mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment, site and cytochrome b sequence analyses. J Zool. 228(1):27–39. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1992.tb04430.x.

Gendreau EJ, Shumaker AW, Joiner EM, Griffin AC, Pritchett CA, Karmilovich KA, O’Shields ST, Summers JD. 2015. Camels and fennec foxes: a case study on biologically inspired design of sand traction systems. In: Volume 7: 27th International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. [accessed 2019 Jul 30].

Geraads D. 1997. Carnivores du Pliocène terminalde Ahl al Oughlam (Casablanca, Maroc). Geobios. 30(1):127–164. doi:10.1016/S0016-6995(97)80263-X.

Geraads D. 2008. Plio-Pleistocene Carnivora of northwestern Africa: a short review. Comptes Rendus Palevol Syst Palaeontol. 7(8):591–599. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2008.09.008.

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Gray KN, Harwell G, Tsai CC. 1982. Multiple primary tumors in a fennec fox (Fennecus zerda). J Wildl Dis. 18(3):369–371. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-18.3.369.

Harrington LA. 2015. International commercial trade in live carnivores and primates 2006-2012; response to Bush et al. 2014: trade in live carnivores and primates. Conserv Biol. 29(1):293–296. doi:10.1111/cobi.12448.

Harrison DL. 1968. Genus Fennecus. In: The mammals of Arabia: Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Hyracoidea. London (England): Ernest Benn Limited. p. 216–220.

Harrison DL, Bates PJJ. 1991. Vulpes zerda (Zimmermann, 1780). In: The mammals of Arabia (second edition). Sevenoaks (UK): Harrison Zoological Museum. p. 122–23.

Incorvaia G. 2005. Etude des facteurs potentiellement limitant de la répartition des fennecs Fennecus zerda, dans le sud tunisien. Thèse vétérinaire, Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, France.

Karssene Y, Chammem M, Khorchani T, Nouira S, Li F. 2017. Global warming drives changes in carnivore communities in the North Sahara Desert. Clim Res. 72(2):153–162. doi:10.3354/cr01463.

Karssene Y, Chammem M, Li F, Eddine A, Hermann A, Nouira S. 2019. Spatial and temporal variability in the distribution, daily activity and diet of fennec fox (Vulpes zerda), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and African golden wolf (Canis anthus) in southern Tunisia. Mamm Biol. 95:41–50. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2019.02.001.

Karssene Y, Nowak C, Chammem M, Cocchiararo B, Nouira S. 2019. Genetic diversity of the genus Vulpes (red fox and fennec fox) in Tunisia based on mitochondrial DNA and noninvasive DNA sampling. Mamm Biol. 96:118–123. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2018.09.008.

Kheckekhouche E, Brahmi K, Kerboub A, Slimani S, Bessati S, Doumandji S, Aulagnier S. 2018. Variations saisonnières du régime alimentaire du fennec, Vulpes zerda (Canidae, Carnivora), en Algérie [Seasonal variations in the diet of fennec, Vulpes zerda (Canidae, Carnivora), en Algeria]. Rev Ecol Terre Vie Ecol Rev Earth Life. 73(2):103–114.

Koenig VL. 1970. Zur fortpflanzung und jugendentwicklung des wüstenfuchses (Fennecus zerda Zimm. 1780). Z Tierspychologie. 27:205–246.

Kottwitz JJ, Preziosi DE, Miller MA, Ramos-Vara JA, Maggs DJ, Bonagura JD. 2004. Heart failure caused by toxoplasmosis in a fennec fox (Fennecus zerda). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 40(6):501–507. doi:10.5326/0400501.

Larivière S. 2002. Vulpes zerda. Mamm Species. 714:1–5. doi:10.1644/0.714.1.

Leite JV, Álvares F, Velo-Antón G, Brito JC, Godinho R. 2015. Differentiation of North African foxes and population genetic dynamics in the desert—insights into the evolutionary history of two sister taxa, Vulpes rueppellii and Vulpes vulpes. Org Divers Evol. 15(4):731–745. doi:10.1007/s13127-015-0232-8.

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Loumassine HA, Bounaceur F, Doumandji SE, Maghniche F. 2014. Ecologie trophique du fennec Vulpes zerda (Zimmermann 1780) et l’hérisson du désert Paraechinus aethiopocus (Ehrenberg 1833) dans la région du Grand Erg Occidental, Timimoun [Trophic ecology of fennec Vulpes zerda (Zimmermann 1780) and the desert hedgehog Paraechinus aethiopocus (Ehrenberg 1833) in the region of Grand Erg Occidental, Timimoun]. Rev Ecol-Environ. 10:56–60.

Maloiy GMO, Kamau JMZ, Shkolnik A, Meir M, Arieli R. 1982. Thermoregulation and metabolism in a small desert carnivore: the fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) (Mammalia). J Zool. 198(3):279–291. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1982.tb02076.x.

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Mękarska A, editor. 2001. Fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) European studbook Nr. 1. Kraków: local park and zoological garden foundation.

Mękarska A. 2006. Methods of fennecs (Fennecus zerda) keeping in European zoos. In: Zgrabezyńska E, Ćwiertnia P, Ziomek J, editors. Animals, zoos and conservation. Poznań: Zoological Garden in Poznań. p. 41–44.

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Noll-Banholzer U. 1979a. Body temperature, oxygen consumption, evaporative water loss and heart rate in the fennec. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol. 62(3):585–592. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(79)90108-7.

Noll-Banholzer U. 1979b. Water balance and kidney structure in the fennec. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol. 62(3):593–597. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(79)90109-9.

Petter F. 1957. La reproduction du fennec. Mammalia 21: 307-309.

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Pressanti C, Delverdier M, Iriart X, Morcel F, Cadiergues M-C. 2012. A case of Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda). Vet Dermatol. 23(5):456-e87. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3164.2012.01077.x.

Rosevear DR. 1974. Fennecus zerda (Zimmermann), Fennec. In: The carnivores of West Africa. London (England): Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). p. 56–63.

Saint Girons M-C. 1962. Notes sur les dates de reproduction en captivité du fennec [Notes on the dates of reproduction in captivity of the fennec]. Z Samulugetierk. 27:181-184.

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Sheldon JW. 1992. Genus Fennecus. In: Wild dogs: the natural history of the nondomestic Canidae. San Diego (CA): Academic Press, Inc. p. 91–95.

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Additional Internet Resources

Curious Canid

Fennec fox tilts head while standing on log

Fennec fox, Vulpes zerda.

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