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Guianan Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Abee CR. 1989. The squirrel monkey in biomedical research. ILAR J. 31(1):11–20. doi:10.1093/ilar.31.1.11.

Alvarez F. 1975. Social hierarchy under different criteria in groups of squirrel monkeys, Saimiri sciureus. Primates 16: 437–455.

Baldwin JD. 1968. The social behavior of adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in a seminatural environment. Folia Primatol. 9(3–4):281–314. doi:10.1159/000155184.

Baldwin JD. 1969. The ontogeny of social behaviour of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in a seminatural environment. Folia Primatol. 11(1–2):35–79. doi:10.1159/000155258.

Baldwin JD. 1971. The social organization of a semifree-ranging troop of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Folia Primatol. 14(1–2):23–50. doi:10.1159/000155332.

Baldwin JD. 1981. A study of the social behavior of a semifree-ranging colony of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). [Ph.D. thesis]. [Baltimore, MD]: Johns Hopkins University.

Baldwin JD, Baldwin JI. 1971. Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) in natural habitats in Panama, Colombia, Brazil, and Peru. Primates. 12(1):45–61. doi:10.1007/BF01730381.

Baldwin JD, Baldwin JI. 1981. The squirrel monkeys, Genus Saimiri. In: Coimbra-Filho AF, Mittermeier RA, editors. Ecology and behavior of Neotropical primates, volume 1. Academia Brasileira de Ciências. p. 277–330.

Beischer DE, Furry DE. 1964. Saimiri sciureus as an experimental animal. Anat Rec. 148(4):615–624. doi:10.1002/ar.1091480414.

Boinski S. 1999. The social organization of squirrel monkeys: implications for ecological models of social evolution. Evol Anthropol 8:101–112.

Castell R, Heinrich B. 1971. Rank order in a captive female squirrel monkey colony. Folia Primatol. 14(3–4):182–189. doi:10.1159/000155349.

Coe CL, Rosenblum LA. 1978. Annual reproductive strategy of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Folia Primatol. 29(1):19–42. doi:10.1159/000155824.

Du Mond FV. 1968. The squirrel monkey in a seminatural environment. In: The squirrel monkey. Academic Press, Inc. p. 87–145.

Du Mond FV, Hutchinson TC. 1967. Squirrel monkey reproduction: the “fatted” male phenomenon and seasonal spermatogenesis. Science. 158(3804):1067–1070. doi:10.1126/science.158.3804.1067.

Duarte HOB, Carvalho WD. 2019. First record of common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) consumption by Great Black Hawk (Urubitinga urubitinga). Wilson J Ornithol. 131(3):644. doi:10.1676/18-143.

Dukelow WR. 1983. The squirrel monkey. In: Hearn J, editor. Reproduction in New World primates: new models in medical science. Lancaster (England): MTP Press Limited. p. 151–179.

Eisenberg JF. 1989. Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758). In: Mammals of the Neotropics: the northern Neotropics, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana (vol. 1). Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press. p. 251–252.

Fleagle JG. 2013. Cebids. In: Primate adaptation and evolution. Third edition. San Diego (CA): Academic Press. p. 103–109.

Goss CM, Popejoy II LT, Fusiler JL, Smith TM. 1968. Observations on the relationship between embryoloical development, time of conception, and gestation. In: The squirrel monkey. p. 87–145.

Henfrey T. 2020. Relationships between scientific ecology and knowledge of primate ecology of Wapishana subsistence hunters in Guyana. In: Urbani B, Lizarralde M, editors. Neotropical Ethnoprimatology. Springer International Publishing. (Ethnobiology). p. 263–282. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-27504-4_12.

Hershkovitz P. 1984. Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys genus Saimiri (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary report with description of a hitherto unnamed form. Am J Primatol. 7(2):155–210. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350070212.

Husson AM. 1978. Saimiri sciureus sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758). In: The mammals of Suriname. Leiden (Netherlands): E.J. Brill. p. 226–229.

ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) [Internet database]. 2022. Saimiri sciureus. TSN 180095; [accessed 2022 Sep 23].

Izar P, Stone A, Carnegie S, Nakai ÉS. 2009. Sexual selection, female choice and mating systems. In: Garber PA, Estrada A, Bicca-Marques JC, Heymann EW, Strier KB, editors. South American Primates. New York: Springer. p. 157–189. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-78705-3_7.

Jack KM. 2011. The cebines: toward an explanation of variable social structure. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Bearder SK, Stumpf RM, editors. Primates in perspective. 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 108–122.

Janson CH, Boinski S. 1992. Morphological and behavioral adaptations for foraging in generalist primates: The case of the cebines. Am J Phys Anthropol. 88(4):483–498. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330880405.

Kaplan J, Russell M. 1974. Olfactory recognition in the infant squirrel monkey. Dev Psychobiol. 7(1):15–19. doi:10.1002/dev.420070104.

Kauffman L, Ehmke E, Schet S, Vreedzaam A, Boinski S. 2005. Dispersal patterns among three species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii, S. boliviensis and S. sciureus): I. Divergent costs and benefits. Behaviour 142(5):525–632. doi:10.1163/1568539054352888.

Klein LL, Klein DJ. 1973. Observations on two types of neotropical primate intertaxa associations. Am J Phys Anthropol. 38(2):649–653. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330380282.

Lima DM de, Albuquerque JR de, Oliveira MAB de. 2021. Human perceptions and practices related to the squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in a forest area of Pernambuco, Brazil. Multidiscip Sci J. 4(1):e2022009. doi:10.29327/multiscience.2022009.

Lynch Alfaro JW, Boubli JP, Paim FP, Ribas CC, Silva MNF da, Messias MR, Röhe F, Mercês MP, Silva Júnior JS, Silva CR, et al. 2015. Biogeography of squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri): South-central Amazon origin and rapid pan-Amazonian diversification of a lowland primate. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 82:436–454. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.09.004.

McNamara A, Dunham NT, Shapiro LJ, Young JW. 2019. The effects of natural substrate discontinuities on the quadrupedal gait kinematics of free‐ranging Saimiri sciureus. Am J Primatol. 81(9). doi:10.1002/ajp.23055.

Mercês MP, Lynch Alfaro JW, Ferreira WAS, Harada ML, Silva Júnior JS. 2015. Morphology and mitochondrial phylogenetics reveal that the Amazon River separates two eastern squirrel monkey species: Saimiri sciureus and S. collinsi. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 82:426–435. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.09.020.

Ploog D, Hopf S, Winter P. 1967. Ontogenese des verhaltens von totenkopf-affen (Saimiri sciureus). Psychol Forsch. 31(1):1–41. doi:10.1007/BF00422383.

Ploog DW. 1967. The behavior of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) as revealed by sociometry, bioacoustics, and brain stimulation. In: Social communication among primates. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 149–184.

Ploog DW, Blitz J, Ploog F. 1963. Studies on social and sexual behavior of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Folia Primatol. 1(1):29–66. doi:10.1159/000164879.

Pinheiro T, Ferrari SF, Lopes MA. 2013. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia. Primates. 54(3):301–308. doi:10.1007/s10329-013-0351-9.

Ribeiro-Júnior MA, Ferrari SF, Lima JRF, da Silva CR, Lima JD. 2016. Predation of a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) by an Amazon tree boa (Corallus hortulanus): even small boids may be a potential threat to small-bodied platyrrhines. Primates. 57(3):317–322. doi:10.1007/s10329-016-0545-z.

Rosenblum LA, Cooper RW, editors. 1968. The squirrel monkey. New York: Academic Press, Inc.

Ruiz JC. 2005. Relative humidity, ambient temperature, and urine washing behavior in Bolivian squirrel monkeys, Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis. Primate Report 71:57–61.

Rylands AB, Mittermeier RA. 2013. Guianan squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus. In: Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA, editors. Handbook of the mammals of the world: primates (volume 3). Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions. p. 394.

Rylands AB, Mittermeier RA, Bezerra BM, Paim FP, Queiroz HL. 2013. Family Cebidae (squirrel monkeys and capuchins). In: Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA, editors. Handbook of the mammals of the world: primates (volume 3). Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions. p. 348-389.

Shaffer CA, Milstein MS, Yukuma C, Marawanaru E, Suse P. 2017. Sustainability and comanagement of subsistence hunting in an indigenous reserve in Guyana. Conserv Biol. 31(5):1119–1131. doi:10.1111/cobi.12891.

Silva Júnior JS, Mittermeier RA, Lynch Alfaro JW, Valença-Montenegro MM, Carvalho AS. 2021. Saimiri sciureus (amended version of 2020 assessment). The IUCN red list of threatened species 2021: e.T43968A192584742 (specoes assessed 03 April 2020; accessed 23 Sep 2022). doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T43968A192584742.en.

Stone AI. 2004. Juvenile feeding ecology and life history in a neotropical primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) [Ph.D. thesis]. [Urbana (IL)]: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Stone AI. 2007. Responses of squirrel monkeys to seasonal changes in food availability in an eastern Amazonian forest. Am J Primatol. 69(2):142–157. doi:10.1002/ajp.20335.

Stone AI. 2014. Is fatter sexier? Reproductive strategies of male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Int J Primatol. 35(3–4):628–642. doi:10.1007/s10764-014-9755-7.

Terborgh J. 1983. Five New World primates: a study in comparative ecology. (Monographs in behavior and ecology). Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.

Trevino HS. 2007. Seasonality of reproduction in captive squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Am J Primatol. 69(9):1001–1012. doi:10.1002/ajp.20409.

UNEP. 2022. Saimiri sciureus. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]; [accessed 2022 Sep 23].

Vermeer J. 2006. Husbandry guidelines for squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri). Romagne (France): La Vallée des Singes. 57 pp.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (Germany): E. Schweizerbart’sche.

Winter P. 1968. Social communication in the squirrel monkey. In: The squirrel monkey. Academic Press, Inc. p. 235–253.

Winter P, Ploog D, Latta J. 1966. Vocal repertoire of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), its analysis and significance. Exp Brain Res. 1(4). doi:10.1007/BF00237707.

Zimbler-DeLorenzo HS, Stone AI. 2011. Integration of field and captive studies for understanding the behavioral ecology of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.). American Journal of Primatology. 73:607–622.

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2022. [updated 2022 Sep 16; accessed 2022 Oct 18].

Along for the Ride

Squirrel monkey mother, infant riding on her back

Guianan squirrel monkey mother and infant.

New mothers carry their infants until about 5 to 6 weeks of age, when young begin exploring on their own.

Young squirrel monkeys become independent at about 11 months old.

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

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