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Lord Howe Island Stick Insect (Dryococelus australis) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Buckley TR, Attanayake D, Bradler S. 2009. Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci. 276(1659):1055–1062. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1552.

Buckley TR, Attanayake D, Nylander JAA, Bradler S. 2010. The phylogenetic placement and biogeographical origins of the New Zealand stick insects (Phasmatodea). Syst Entomol. 35(2):207–225. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2009.00505.x.

Carlile N, Priddel D, Honan P. 2009. The recovery programme for the Lord Howe Island phasmid (Dryococelus australis) following its rediscovery. Ecol Manag Restor. 10:S124–S128. doi:10.1111/j.1442-8903.2009.00450.x.

Cassis G. 2017. Conservation biology: a walking stick’s redux on Lord Howe Island. Curr Biol. 27(20):R1120–R1122. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.09.026.

Cleave. 2013. A conservation program for the Lord Howe Island stick insect (Dryococelus australis) at Melbourne Zoo. Int Zoo News. 60:244–252.

Ellis E. 2017. How, Lord Howe? Sticking up for “tree lobsters.” San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Stories [published online 2017 Mar 28; accessed 2021 May 19].

Etheridge R. 1889. The general zoology of Lord Howe Island; containing also an account of the collections made by the Australian Museum Collecting Party, Aug.–Sept., 1887. Aust Mus Mem. 2(1):1–42. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1967.2.1889.479.

Flemons P, Wills V, Gray D, Pearce K, Priebbenow Z, Priebbenow P, Mattick B, Bell K, Köhler F, Bower H, et al. 2018. The Australian Museum Lord Howe Island Expedition 2017 — Balls Pyramid survey for phasmids. Tech Rep Aust Mus Online. 26:77–94. doi:10.3853/j.1835-4211.26.2018.1708.

Gurney AB. 1947. Notes on some remarkable Australasian walkingsticks, including a synopsis of the genus Extatosoma (Orthoptera: Phasmatidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am. 40(3):373–396. doi:10.1093/aesa/40.3.373.

Honan, Cleave R, Dowsett N, Anderson R, Marston Z. 2007. Husbandry manual for the Lord Howe Island stick-insect. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne Zoo.

Honan P. 2007. The Lord Howe Island stick insect: an example of the benefits of captive management. Vic Nat. 124(4):258–261.

Honan P. 2008. Notes on the biology, captive management and conservation status of the Lord Howe Island stick insect (Dryococelus australis) (Phasmatodea). J Insect Conserv. 12(3–4):399–413. doi:10.1007/s10841-008-9162-5.

Lambert H. 2012. Reproduction in captive environments: How does female choice affect mating behaviour and reproductive outcomes in Lord Howe Island stick insects (Dryococelus australis)? [M.S. thesis]. Melbourne (Australia): University of Melbourne.

Lea AM. 1916. Notes on the Lord Howe Island phasma, and on an associated longicorn beetle. Trans Proc R Soc S Aust. 40:145–147.

Lord Howe Island Board. 2017. Lord Howe Island rodent eradication project: NSW species impact statement. Lord Howe Island, New South Wales: Lord Howe Island Board.

McAlpine D.K. 1966. Rediscovery of Lord Howe Island phasmid. Australian Entomological Society News Bulletin 2: 71.

McGrath SJ, Cleave RJ, Elgar MA, Silcocks SC, Magrath MJL. 2017. Determining host plant preferences for the critically endangered Lord Howe Island stick insect (Dryococelus australis) to assist reintroduction. J Insect Conserv. 21(5–6):791–799. doi:10.1007/s10841-017-0002-3.

Mikheyev AS, Zwick A, Magrath MJL, Grau ML, Qiu L, Su YN, Yeates D. 2017. Museum genomics confirms that the Lord Howe Island stick insect survived extinction. Curr Biol. 27(20):3157-3161.e4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.08.058.

Nicholls M. 1952. A history of Lord Howe Island. Hobart (Australia): Mercury Press.

NSW Government. 2021. Rodent eradication gives Lord Howe biodiversity boom [Internet]. Parramatta NSW: NSW Government; [published 2021 Feb 02; accessed 2021 Apr 20].

Paramonov SJ. 1963. Lord Howe Island, a riddle of the Pacific, part III. Pac Sci. 17(3):361–373.

Priddel D, Carlile N. 2010. Return of the Lord Howe Island phasmid to Lord Howe Island, Australia. In: Soorae PS, editor. Global re-introduction perspectives: additional case-studies from around the globe. Abu Dhabi (UAE): IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group. p. 17–20.

Priddel D, Carlilie N, Humphrey M, Fellenberg S, Hiscox D. 2003. Rediscovery of the ‘extinct’ Lord Howe Island stick-insect (Dryococelus australis (Montrouzier)) (Phasmatodea) and recommendations for its conservation. Biodivers Conserv. 12(7):1391–1403. doi:10.1023/A:1023625710011.

Rudolf E, Brock P. 2017. Lord Howe Island stick-insect, Dryococelus australis. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2022.1; e. (species assessed 2017 Mar 28; page accessed 2021 Feb 12). doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T6852A21426226.en.

San Diego Zoo Global Public Relations. 2016. First Lord Howe Island stick insect eggs laid in North America [news release]. [published 2016 Nov 11; accessed 2021 May 19].

Shi C, Shih C, Chen S, Ren D. 2019. Phasmatodea — stick insects and leaf insects. In: Ren D, Shih CK, Gao T, Yao Y, Wang Y, editors. Rhythms of insect evolution. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. p. 165–173. [accessed 2021 Feb 16]. doi:10.1002/9781119427957.ch13.

Smithers CN. 1969. On some remains of the Lord Howe Island phasmid (Dryococelus australis (Montrouzier)) (Phasmida) from Balls Pyramid. Entomol Mon Mag. 105:252.

SPRAT. 2021. Dryococelus australis — Lord Howe Island phasmid, land lobster. Species profile and threats database [online database]. Canberra, Australia: Species profile and threats database [compiled by Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment–Australian Government, Canberra, Australia]; [accessed 2021 Apr 20].

UNEP. 2021. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]; [accessed 2021 Apr 21].

Westwood JO. 1859. Eurycantha australis. In: Catalogue of Orthopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part 1, Phasmidae. London (England): Gurney and Jackson. p. 65.

Wilkinson R. 2014. Return of the phasmid: Australia’s rarest insect fights back from the brink of extinction. Hamilton Central (Queensland): Media Dynamics – Streetlight.

Zompro O. 2001. A review of the Eurycanthinae: Eurycanthini, with a key to genera, notes on the subfamily and designation of type species. Phasmid Stud. 10(1):19–23.

Additional Internet Resources

Recommended Reading

Return of the Phasmid, book by R. Wilkinson

Return of the Phasmid by Rick Wilkinson (2013). Windsor (Australia): Media Dynamics.

Detailed historical account of the rediscovery of the Lord Howe Island stick insect and related conservation breeding/reintroduction efforts.

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