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Red-cheeked Gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Bach TH, Chen J, Hoang MD, Beng KC, Nguyen VT. 2017. Feeding behavior and activity budget of the southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in a lowland tropical forest. Am J Primatol. 79:e22667. doi:10.1002/ajp.22667.

Barca B, Vincent C, Soeung K, Nuttall M, Hobson K. 2016. Multi-female group in the southernmost species of Nomascus: field observations in Eastern Cambodia reveal multiple breeding females in a single group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon Nomascus gabriellae. Asian Primates J. 6:15–19.

Bartlett TQ. 2011. The Hylobatidae: small apes of Asia. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Bearder SK, Stumpf RM, editors. Primates in perspective. 2nd ed. New York (NY): Oxford University Press. p. 300–312.

Cheyne SM. 2011. Gibbon locomotion research in the field: problems, possibilities, and benefits for conservation. In: D’Aout K, Vereecke EE, editors. Primate locomotion: linking field and laboratory research. New York (NY): Springer. (Tuttle RH, editor. Developments in primatology: progress and prospects [book series]). p. 201–213.

Chivers DJ, Anandam MV, Groves CP, Molur S, Rawson BM, Richardson MC, Roos C, Whittaker D. 2013. Family Hylobatidae (gibbons). In: Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA, editors. Handbook of the mammals of the world: primates. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions. p. 754-791.

CITES. 2018. Nomascus gabriellae (Thomas, 1909). Species+. [accessed 2018 May 02].

Fleagle JG. 1976. Locomotion and posture of the Malayan siamang and implications for hominoid evolution. Folia Primatol (Basel). 26:245–269. doi:10.1159/000155756.

Geissmann T. 1991. Reassessment of age of sexual maturity in gibbons (Hylobates spp.). Am J Primatol. 23:11–22. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350230103.

Geissmann T. 2002. Duet-splitting and the evolution of gibbon songs. Biol Rev. 77:57–76. doi:10.1017/S1464793101005826.

Geissmann T, Anzenberger G. 2009. Hormonal correlates of the ovarian cycle in the yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabrielle), and a review of ovarian cycles in gibbons (Hylobatidae). Gibbon J. 5:61–73.

Geissmann T, Manh Ha N, Rawson B, Timmins R, Traeholt C, Walston J. 2008. Nomascus gabriellae. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2017.3; e. T39776A10265736 (species assessed 2008 Jun 30; page accessed 2018 May 02). <>. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T39776A10265736.en.

Hai BT, Chen J, McConkey KR, Dayananda SK. 2018. Gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) provide key seed dispersal for the Pacific walnut (Dracontomelon dao), in Asia’s lowland tropical forest. Acta Oecologica. 88:71–79. doi:10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.011.

ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) [database; Internet]. TSN 944292. [accessed 2018 May 02].

Kenyon M, Roos C, Binh VT, Chivers D. 2011. Extrapair paternity in golden-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in the secondary lowland forest of Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. Folia Primatol (Basel). 82:154–164. doi:10.1159/000333143.

Mootnick AR, Fan P-F. 2011. A comparative study of crested gibbons (Nomascus). Am J Primatol. 73:135–154. doi:10.1002/ajp.20880.

Rawson B. 2004. Vocalisation patterns in the yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae). In: Nadler T, Streicher U, Ha TL, editors. Conservation of primates in Vietnam. Hanoi (Vietnam): Haki Publishing. p. 130–136.

Rawson BM, Clements T, Hor NM. 2009. Status and conservation of yellow-cheeked crested gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in the Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area, Mondulkiri Province, Cambodia. In: Lappan S, Whittaker DJ, editors. The gibbons: new perspectives on small ape socioecology and populations biology. New York (NY): Springer. p. 387–408.

Rawson BM, Hoang MD, Roos C, Van NT, Nguyen MH. 2020. Nomascus gabriellae. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2020.2; e.T128073282A17968950 [species assessed 2015 Nov 20; page accessed 2020 Nov 06]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T128073282A17968950.en.

Rawson BM, Insua-Cao P, Ha N., Thinh VN, Hoang DM, Mahood S, Roos C. 2011. The conservation status of gibbons in Vietnam. Hanoi (Vietnam): Fauna & Flora International/Conservation International.

Sheeran LK, Mootnick AR. 1998. Crested [= black] gibbon: Hylobates concolor. In: Beacham W, Beetz KH, editors. Beacham’s guide to international endangered species. Vol. 1. Osprey (FL): Beacham Publishing Group. p. 57-60.

Thien N, Anh NQH, Thinh VN, Khoi LV, Roos C. 2017. Distribution of the northern yellow-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus anamensis) in Central Vietnam. Vietnam J Primatol. 2:83–88.

Traeholt C, Bunthoeun R, Rawson B, Samuth M, Virak C, Vutin S. 2005. Status review of pileated gibbon, Hylobates pileatus and yellow-cheeked crested gibbon, Nomascus gabriellae, in Cambodia. Phnom Penh (Cambodia): Fauna & Flora International.

UNEP. 2020. Nomascus gabriellae. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]; [accessed 2020 Nov 06].

Varsik A and Santa Barbara Zoological Gardens. 2001. North American regional studbook for white-cheeked gibbon Nomascus leucogenys and golden-cheeked gibbon Nomascus gabriellae. Santa Barbara (CA): Santa Barbara Zoological Gardens.

Vu TT, Tran DV, Giang TT, Nguyen VH, Nguyen MD, Nguyen TC, Tuyet NK, Doherty P. 2016. A mark-recapture population size estimation of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon Nomascus gabrielle (Thomas, 1909) in Chu Yang Sin National Park, Vietnam. Asian Primates J. 6:33–42.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity: from the living collections of the world; a list of mammalian longevity in captivity. Stuttgart (Germany): E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. p. 68.

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2018. [updated 2018 Apr 28; accessed 2018 May 09].

Additional Internet Resources

Arms, Long and Strong

Female r.c. gibbon holding, resting on branch

Gibbons are adapted for life in the forest canopy.

Gibbons have long limbs as well as specialized muscle, hand, and wrist structures. Having a long reach helps gibbons swing from tree to tree and exploit food on the ends of branches that small-bodied primates cannot reach.

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

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