Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance logo
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library logo

Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources

Bibliography

Bernhardt GE, Seamans TW. 1990. Red-winged Blackbird feeding behavior on two sweet corn cultivars. Wildl Soc Bull. 18(1):83–86.

Birdlife International. 2018. Agelaius phoeniceus. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2019.2; e.T22724191A132027891 (species assessed 2018 Aug 09; page accessed 2019 Sep 24). doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22724191A132027891.en.

Bollinger EK, Caslick JW. 1985. Red-winged Blackbird predation on northern corn rootworm beetles in field corn. J Appl Ecol. 22(1):39. doi:10.2307/2403324.

Brenowitz EA. 1982. Long-range communication of species identity by song in the Red-winged Blackbird. Behav Ecol Sociobiol. 10(1):29–38. doi:10.1007/BF00296393.

Clotfelter ED, Yasukawa K. 1999. Impact of brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds on Red-winged Blackbird reproductive success. The Condor. 101(1):105–114. doi:10.2307/1370451.

Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2019. Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Cornell Lab of Ornithology: All about birds [Internet database]. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University [accessed 2019 Sep 24]. https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Red-winged_Blackbird.

Cummings JL, Byrd RW, Eddleman WR, Engeman RM, Tupper SK. 2011. Effectiveness of AV-1011® to reduce damage to drill-planted rice from blackbirds. J Wildl Manag. 75(2):353–356. doi:10.1002/jwmg.65.

Forcey GM, Thogmartin WE. 2017. Effects of habitat and climate on blackbird populations. In: Linz GM, Avery ML, Dolbeer RA, editors. Ecology and management of blackbirds (Icteridae) in North America. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. p. 101–118.

Fraga R. 2014. Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J, Christie DA, Kirwan G, editors. Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions; [accessed 2019 Sep 24]. https://www.hbw.com/species/red-winged-blackbird-agelaius-phoeniceus.

Gill F, Donsker D, editors. 2019. IOC world bird list, master list [ver. 9.2]. [updated 2019 Jun 21; accessed 2019 Sep 27]. https://www.worldbirdnames.org/ioc-lists/crossref/. http://www.dx.doi.org/10.14344/IOC.ML.9.2.

Holcomb LC, Twiest G. 1968. Red-winged Blackbird nestling growth compared to adult size and differential development of structures. Ohio J Sci. 68(6):277–284.

Jaramillo A, Burke P. 1999. Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus. In: New World blackbirds: the icterids. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press. p. 258–266.

Knight RL, Temple SA. 1988. Nest-defense behavior in the Red-winged Blackbird. The Condor. 90(1):193–200. doi:10.2307/1368448.

Linz GM, Sawin RS, Lutman MW. 2014. The influence of breeding experience on nest success in Red-winged Blackbird. West North Am Nat. 74(1):123–129. doi:10.3398/064.074.0113.

Mason RJ, Reidinger RF. 1982. Observational learning of food aversions in Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). The Auk. 99(3):548–554.

McNicol DK, Robertson RJ, Weatherhead PJ. 1982. Seasonal, habitat, and sex-specific food habits of Red-winged Blackbirds: implications for agriculture. Can J Zool. 60(12):3282–3289. doi:10.1139/z82-415.

Meanley B. 1965. The roosting behavior of the Red-winged Blackbird in the southern United States. Wilson Bull. 77(3):217–228.

Mott DF, West RR, Grazio JWD, Guarino JL. 1972. Foods of the Red-winged Blackbird in Brown County, South Dakota. J Wildl Manag. 36(3):983. doi:10.2307/3799465.

Nero RW. 1956. A behavior study of the Red-winged Blackbird: II. territoriality. Wilson Bull. 68(2):129–150.

Orians GH, Beletsky LD. 1989. Red-winged Blackbird. In: Newton I, editor. Lifetime reproduction in birds. New York (NY): Academic Press; pp. 183-197.

Patterson CB. 1991. Relative parental investment in the Red-winged Blackbird. J Field Ornithol. 62(1):1–18.

Peek FW. 1971. Seasonal change in the breeding behavior of the male Red-winged Blackbird. Wilson Bull. 83(4):383–395.

Peek FW. 1972. An experimental study of the territorial function of vocal and visual display in the male Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Anim Behav. 20(1):112–118. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(72)80180-5.

Prather JW, Cruz A. 2006. Breeding biology of Red-winged Blackbirds in South Florida. Southeast Nat. 5(3):547–554. doi:10.1656/1528-7092(2006)5[547:BBORBI]2.0.CO;2.

Rosenberg KV, Kennedy R, Dettmers R, Ford RP, Reynolds D, Alexander JD, Beardmore CJ, Blancher PJ, Bogart RE, Butcher GS, et al. 2016. Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: 2016 revision for Canada and Continental United States. Partners in Flight Science Committee. https://www.partnersinflight.org/resources/the-plan/.

Sawin RS, Lutman MW, Linz GM, Bleier WJ. 2003. Predators on Red-winged Blackbird nests in eastern North Dakota. J Field Ornithol. 74(3):288–292. doi:10.1648/0273-8570-74.3.288.

Shipley FS. 1979. Predation on Red-winged Blackbird eggs and nestlings. Wilson Bull. 91(3):426–433.

Smith DG. 1972. The role of the epaulets in the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) social system. Behaviour. 41(3–4):251–268. doi:10.1163/156853972X00040.

Stowers JF, Harke DT, Stickley, Jr. AR. 1968. Vegetation used for nesting by the Red-winged Blackbird in Florida. Wilson Bull. 80(3):320–324.

UNEP. 2019. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]; [accessed 2019 Sep 24]. https://www.speciesplus.net.

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. 2019. Migratory bird treaty act. [last updated 2019 Aug; accessed 2019 Sep 27]. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory. Falls Church (VA): Migratory Bird Program, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. https://www.fws.gov/birds/policies-and-regulations/laws-legislations/migratory-bird-treaty-act.php.

U.S. Geological Survey. 2019. Longevity records of North American birds. Version 2019.1 [last updated 2018 Sep 26; accessed 2019 Sep 27]. Laurel (MD): U.S. Geological Survey. https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbl/longevity/longevity_main.cfm.

Werner SJ, Linz GM, Tupper SK, Carlson JC. 2010. Laboratory efficacy of chemical repellents for reducing blackbird damage in rice and sunflower crops. J Wildl Manag. 74(6):1400–1404. doi:10.1111/j.1937-2817.2010.tb01264.x.

Westneat DF. 1995. Paternity and paternal behaviour in the Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Anim Behav. 49(1):21–35. doi:10.1016/0003-3472(95)80150-2.

Westneat DF, Mays HL. 2005. Tests of spatial and temporal factors influencing extra-pair paternity in Red-winged Blackbirds. Mol Ecol. 14(7):2155–2167. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02562.x.

Wright PL, Wright MH. 1944. The reproductive cycle of the male Red-winged Blackbird. The Condor. 46(2):46–59. doi:10.2307/1364305.

Yasukawa K. 1981. Song and territory defense in the Red-winged Blackbird. The Auk. 98(1):185–187.

Yasukawa K, Mcclure JL, Boley RA, Zanocco J. 1990. Provisioning of nestlings by male and female red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. Anim Behav. 40(1):153–166. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80675-X.

Yasukawa K, Searcy WA. 2019. Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). In: Rodewald PG, editor. The Birds of North America (Internet; version 2.0). Ithaca (NY): Cornell Lab of Ornithology; [published 2019 Jan 28; accessed 2019 Sep 28]. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.rewbla.02

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2019. [updated 2018 Dec 01; accessed 2019 Oct 01]. https://www.species360.org/.

Additional Internet Resources

Red-winged Blackbird

Red-winged Blackbird perched on cattail

Red-winged Blackbird calls from cattail perch.

Image credit: © ashokboghani (Flickr). Creative Commons CC BY-NC 2.0. Some rights reserved.

SDZWA Library Links