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Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Bernhardt GE, Seamans TW. 1990. Red-winged Blackbird feeding behavior on two sweet corn cultivars. Wildl Soc Bull. 18(1):83–86.

Birdlife International. 2018. Agelaius phoeniceus. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2019.2; e.T22724191A132027891 (species assessed 2018 Aug 09; page accessed 2019 Sep 24). doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22724191A132027891.en.

Bollinger EK, Caslick JW. 1985. Red-winged Blackbird predation on northern corn rootworm beetles in field corn. J Appl Ecol. 22(1):39. doi:10.2307/2403324.

Brenowitz EA. 1982. Long-range communication of species identity by song in the Red-winged Blackbird. Behav Ecol Sociobiol. 10(1):29–38. doi:10.1007/BF00296393.

Clotfelter ED, Yasukawa K. 1999. Impact of brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds on Red-winged Blackbird reproductive success. The Condor. 101(1):105–114. doi:10.2307/1370451.

Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2019. Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Cornell Lab of Ornithology: All about birds [Internet database]. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University [accessed 2019 Sep 24].

Cummings JL, Byrd RW, Eddleman WR, Engeman RM, Tupper SK. 2011. Effectiveness of AV-1011® to reduce damage to drill-planted rice from blackbirds. J Wildl Manag. 75(2):353–356. doi:10.1002/jwmg.65.

Dyer MI, Pinowski J, Pinowska B. 1977. Population dynamics. In: Granivorous birds in ecosystems (J Pinowski and SC Kendeigh, editors). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pp. 53-105.

Forcey GM, Thogmartin WE. 2017. Effects of habitat and climate on blackbird populations. In: Linz GM, Avery ML, Dolbeer RA, editors. Ecology and management of blackbirds (Icteridae) in North America. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. p. 101–118.

Fankhauser DP. Survival rates in Red-winged Blackbirds. Bird-banding. 1967:139–142.

Fraga R. 2014. Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J, Christie DA, Kirwan G, editors. Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions; [accessed 2019 Sep 24].

Gill F, Donsker D, editors. 2019. IOC world bird list, master list [ver. 9.2]. [updated 2019 Jun 21; accessed 2019 Sep 27].

Holcomb LC, Twiest G. 1968. Red-winged Blackbird nestling growth compared to adult size and differential development of structures. Ohio J Sci. 68(6):277–284.

Jaramillo A, Burke P. 1999. Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus. In: New World blackbirds: the icterids. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press. p. 258–266.

Knight RL, Temple SA. 1988. Nest-defense behavior in the Red-winged Blackbird. The Condor. 90(1):193–200. doi:10.2307/1368448.

Linz GM, Sawin RS, Lutman MW. 2014. The influence of breeding experience on nest success in Red-winged Blackbird. West North Am Nat. 74(1):123–129. doi:10.3398/064.074.0113.

Mason RJ, Reidinger RF. 1982. Observational learning of food aversions in Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). The Auk. 99(3):548–554.

McNicol DK, Robertson RJ, Weatherhead PJ. 1982. Seasonal, habitat, and sex-specific food habits of Red-winged Blackbirds: implications for agriculture. Can J Zool. 60(12):3282–3289. doi:10.1139/z82-415.

Meanley B. 1965. The roosting behavior of the Red-winged Blackbird in the southern United States. Wilson Bull. 77(3):217–228.

Mott DF, West RR, Grazio JWD, Guarino JL. 1972. Foods of the Red-winged Blackbird in Brown County, South Dakota. J Wildl Manag. 36(3):983. doi:10.2307/3799465.

Nero RW. 1956. A behavior study of the Red-winged Blackbird: II. territoriality. Wilson Bull. 68(2):129–150.

Orians GH, Beletsky LD. 1989. Red-winged Blackbird. In: Newton I, editor. Lifetime reproduction in birds. New York (NY): Academic Press; pp. 183-197.

Patterson CB. 1991. Relative parental investment in the Red-winged Blackbird. J Field Ornithol. 62(1):1–18.

Peek FW. 1971. Seasonal change in the breeding behavior of the male Red-winged Blackbird. Wilson Bull. 83(4):383–395.

Peek FW. 1972. An experimental study of the territorial function of vocal and visual display in the male Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Anim Behav. 20(1):112–118. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(72)80180-5.

Prather JW, Cruz A. 2006. Breeding biology of Red-winged Blackbirds in South Florida. Southeast Nat. 5(3):547–554. doi:10.1656/1528-7092(2006)5[547:BBORBI]2.0.CO;2.

Rosenberg KV, Kennedy R, Dettmers R, Ford RP, Reynolds D, Alexander JD, Beardmore CJ, Blancher PJ, Bogart RE, Butcher GS, et al. 2016. Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: 2016 revision for Canada and Continental United States. Partners in Flight Science Committee.

Sawin RS, Lutman MW, Linz GM, Bleier WJ. 2003. Predators on Red-winged Blackbird nests in eastern North Dakota. J Field Ornithol. 74(3):288–292. doi:10.1648/0273-8570-74.3.288.

Shipley FS. 1979. Predation on Red-winged Blackbird eggs and nestlings. Wilson Bull. 91(3):426–433.

Smith DG. 1972. The role of the epaulets in the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) social system. Behaviour. 41(3–4):251–268. doi:10.1163/156853972X00040.

Stowers JF, Harke DT, Stickley, Jr. AR. 1968. Vegetation used for nesting by the Red-winged Blackbird in Florida. Wilson Bull. 80(3):320–324.

UNEP. 2019. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]; [accessed 2019 Sep 24].

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. 2019. Migratory bird treaty act. [last updated 2019 Aug; accessed 2019 Sep 27]. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory. Falls Church (VA): Migratory Bird Program, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.

U.S. Geological Survey. 2019. Longevity records of North American birds. Version 2019.1 [last updated 2018 Sep 26; accessed 2019 Sep 27]. Laurel (MD): U.S. Geological Survey.

Werner SJ, Linz GM, Tupper SK, Carlson JC. 2010. Laboratory efficacy of chemical repellents for reducing blackbird damage in rice and sunflower crops. J Wildl Manag. 74(6):1400–1404. doi:10.1111/j.1937-2817.2010.tb01264.x.

Westneat DF. 1995. Paternity and paternal behaviour in the Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Anim Behav. 49(1):21–35. doi:10.1016/0003-3472(95)80150-2.

Westneat DF, Mays HL. 2005. Tests of spatial and temporal factors influencing extra-pair paternity in Red-winged Blackbirds. Mol Ecol. 14(7):2155–2167. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02562.x.

Wright PL, Wright MH. 1944. The reproductive cycle of the male Red-winged Blackbird. The Condor. 46(2):46–59. doi:10.2307/1364305.

Yasukawa K. 1981. Song and territory defense in the Red-winged Blackbird. The Auk. 98(1):185–187.

Yasukawa K, Mcclure JL, Boley RA, Zanocco J. 1990. Provisioning of nestlings by male and female red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. Anim Behav. 40(1):153–166. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80675-X.

Yasukawa K, Searcy WA. 2019. Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). In: Rodewald PG, editor. The Birds of North America (Internet; version 2.0). Ithaca (NY): Cornell Lab of Ornithology; [published 2019 Jan 28; accessed 2019 Sep 28].

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2019. [updated 2018 Dec 01; accessed 2019 Oct 01].

Additional Internet Resources

Red-winged Blackbird

Red-winged Blackbird perched on cattail

Red-winged Blackbird calls from cattail perch.

Image credit: © ashokboghani (Flickr). Creative Commons CC BY-NC 2.0. Some rights reserved.

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