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Sunburst Diving Beetle (Thermonectus marmoratus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Anderson RD. 1962. The Dytiscidae (Coleoptera) of Utah: keys, original citation, types and Utah distribution. Gt Basin Nat. 22(1–3):54–75.

Baron JS, LaFrancois T, Kondratieff BC. 1998. Chemical and biological characteristics of desert rock pools in intermittent streams of Capitol reef National Park, Utah. Gt Basin Nat. 58(3):250–264.

Bergsten J, Miller KB. 2007. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes. PLoS ONE. 2(6):e522. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000522.

Beutel RG, Leschen AB, editors. 2016. Handbook of zoology. Coleoptera, beetles. 2nd edition. Berlin (Germany): de Gruyter.

Bland K, Revetta NP, Stowasser A, Buschbeck EK. 2014. Unilateral range finding in diving beetle larvae. J Exp Biol. 217(3):327–330. doi:10.1242/jeb.092833.

Boersma KS, Nickerson A, Francis CD, Siepielski AM. 2016. Climate extremes are associated with invertebrate taxonomic and functional composition in mountain lakes. Ecol Evol. 6(22):8094–8106. doi:10.1002/ece3.2517.

Bogan MT. 2012. Drought, dispersal, and community dynamics in arid-land streams [Ph.D.]. [Corvallis (OR)]: Oregan State University.

Bogan MT, Noriega-Felix N, Vidal-Aguilar SL, Findley LT, Lytle DA, Gutiérrez-Ruacho OG, Alvarado-Castro JA, Varela-Romero A. 2014. Biogeography and conservation of aquatic fauna in spring-fed tropical canyons of the southern Sonoran Desert, Mexico. Biodivers Conserv. 23(11):2705–2748. doi:10.1007/s10531-014-0745-z.

Buschbeck EK, Sbita SJ, Morgan RC. 2007. Scanning behavior by larvae of the predacious diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) enlarges visual field prior to prey capture. J Comp Physiol A. 193(9):973–982. doi:10.1007/s00359-007-0250-x.

Challet G. 2003. Update on the Dytiscidae (Coleoptera) of Baja California. Coleopt Bull. 57(1):108–109.

Culler LE, Ohba S, Crumrine P. 2014. Predator-prey interactions of Dytiscids. In: Yee DA, editor. Ecology, systematics, and the natural history of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. p. 363–386. [accessed 2020 Mar 25].

Evans AV. 2014. Thermonectus marmoratus sunburst diving beetle (Hope, 1832). In: Bouchard P, editor. The book of beetles: a life-size guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press. p. 109.

Evans AV, Hogue JN. 2006. Predaceous diving beetles. In: The field guide to beetles of California. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press. p. 70–75.

Goodhue-McWilliams KL. 1981. Two new species of Thermonectus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) from southwestern United States and western Mexico. Coleopt Bull. 35(4):399–407.

Gray LJ. 1981. Species composition and life histories of aquatic insects in a lowland Sonoran Desert stream. Am Midl Nat. 106(2):229. doi:10.2307/2425159.

Higginson DM, Miller KB, Segraves KA, Pitnick S. 2012. Convergence, recurrence and diversification of complex sperm traits in diving beetles (Dytiscidae). Evolution. 66(5):1650–1661. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01532.x.

ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) [Internet database]. 2020. Thermonectus marmoratus. TSN 112111; [accessed 2020 Mar 25].

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN red list of threatened species [online database]. Version 2020-1. Cambridge, United Kingdom: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources [accessed 2020 Mar 25].

Larson DJ. 1996. Color patterns of Dytiscine water beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Dytiscinae) of arroyos, billabongs and wadis. Coleopt Bull. 50(3):231–235.

Maksimovic S, Cook TA, Buschbeck EK. 2009. Spatial distribution of opsin-encoding mRNAs in the tiered larval retinas of the sunburst diving beetle Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). J Exp Biol. 212(23):3781–3794. doi:10.1242/jeb.031773.

Maksimovic S, Layne JE, Buschbeck EK. 2011. Spectral sensitivity of the principal eyes of sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), larvae. J Exp Biol. 214(21):3524–3531. doi:10.1242/jeb.058990.

Mandapaka K, Morgan RC, Buschbeck EK. 2006. Twenty-eight retinas but only twelve eyes: an anatomical analysis of the larval visual system of the diving beetle Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). J Comp Neurol. 497(2):166–181. doi:10.1002/cne.20974.

Meinwald J, Huang Q, Vrkoc J, Herath KB, Yang Z-C, Schroder F, Attygalle AB, Iyengar VK, Morgan RC, Eisner T. 1998. Mirasorvone: A masked 20-ketopregnane from the defensive secretion of a diving beetle (Thermonectus marmoratus). Proc Natl Acad Sci. 95(6):2733–2737. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.6.2733.

Miller KB. 2001. On the phylogeny of the Dytiscidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) with emphasis on the morphology of the female reproductive system. Insect Syst Evol. 32(1):45–89. doi:10.1163/187631201X00029.

Miller KB. 2003. The phylogeny of diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) and the evolution of sexual conflict. Biol J Linn Soc. 79(3):359–388. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2003.00195.x.

Miller KB, Bergstem J. 2016. Tribe Aciliini. In: Diving beetles of the world: systematics and biology of the Dytiscidae. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 125–132.

Morgan RC. 1992. Sunburst diving beetles: living jewels brighten rippling water. Backyard BUGwatching 14:4–8.

Morgan RC. 1995. Sunburst diving beetle Thermonectus marmoratus biology, husbandry and display. In: 1995 Invertebrates in Captivity Conference Proceedings; 1995 Aug 17-20, Rio Rico, Arizona. Tucson (AZ): Sonoran Arthropod Studies Institute. p. 50–57.

Nilsson AN, Hájek J. 2020. A world catalogue of the Family Dytiscidae, or the diving beetles (Coleoptera, Adephaga). Report no.: version 1.I.2020.

Roughley RE, Larson DJ. 2000. Dytiscidae. In: American beetles, volume 1: Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. p. 156–186.

Salvatore D, Morgan RC. 1992. Take a closer look: a sunburst diving beetle. Backyard BUGwatching 14:8-10.

Sbita SJ, Morgan RC, Buschbeck EK. 2007. Eye and optic lobe metamorphosis in the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Arthropod Struct Dev. 36(4):449–462. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2007.08.003.

Shaverdo HV. 2005. New records of some species of diving water beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) from the Palearctic and Nearctic regions.

Stahl AL, Baucom RS, Cook TA, Buschbeck EK. 2017. A complex lens for a complex eye. Integr Comp Biol. 57(5):1071–1081. doi:10.1093/icb/icx116.

Stecher N, Morgan R, Buschbeck EK. 2010. Retinal ultrastructure may mediate polarization sensitivity in larvae of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Zoomorphology. 129(3):141–152. doi:10.1007/s00435-010-0107-7.

Stowasser A, Buschbeck EK. 2012. Electrophysiological evidence for polarization sensitivity in the camera-type eyes of the aquatic predacious insect larva Thermonectus marmoratus. J Exp Biol. 215(20):3577–3586. doi:10.1242/jeb.075028.

Stowasser Annette, Buschbeck EK. 2014. How aquatic water-beetle larvae with small chambered eyes overcome challenges of hunting under water. J Comp Physiol A. 200(11):911–922. doi:10.1007/s00359-014-0944-9.

Stowasser A., Buschbeck EK. 2014. Multitasking in an eye: the unusual organization of the Thermonectus marmoratus principal larval eyes allows for far and near vision and might aid in depth perception. J Exp Biol. 217(14):2509–2516. doi:10.1242/jeb.098624.

Stowasser A, Rapaport A, Layne JE, Morgan RC, Buschbeck EK. 2010. Biological bifocal lenses with image separation. Curr Biol. 20(16):1482–1486. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2010.07.012.

UNEP. 2020. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UN Environment Programme [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2020 Mar 25].

Velasco J, Millan VH. 1998. Feeding habits of two large insects from a desert stream: Abedus herberti (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) and Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Aquat Insects. 20(2):85–96. doi:10.1076/aqin.

Werner S, Buschbeck EK. 2015. Rapid and step-wise eye growth in molting diving beetle larvae. J Comp Physiol A. 201(11):1091–1102. doi:10.1007/s00359-015-1040-5.

Whitman DW, Blum MS, Alsop DW. 1990. Allomones: chemicals for defense. In: Insect defenses, adaptive mechanisms and strategies of prey and predators. Evans DL, Schmidt JO, editors. Albany (NY): St. Univ. of New York Press. pp. 289-351.

Yang Z-C, Meinwald J. 1998. Synthesis of mirasorvone, a defensive steroid from the sunburst diving beetle (Thermonectus marmoratus). Tetrahedron Lett. 39(21):3425–3428. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(98)00583-8.

Yee DA, editor. 2014. Ecology, systematics, and the natural history of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. [accessed 2020 Mar 25].

Additional Internet Resources

Deep Breath

Sunburst diving beetle holds air bubble to breathe

Sunburst diving beetle holds air bubble to breathe

Adult diving beetles breathe from an air bubble reservoir while underwater.

Image credits: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

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