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Tapirs (extant/living species; Tapirus spp.) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Ashley MV, Norman JE, Stross L. 1996. Phylogenetic analysis of the Perissodactylan family Tapiridae using mitrochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COII sequences. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 3(4): 315-326.

AZA. 2011. Central American Tapir (Tapirus bairdii): International Studbook.

AZA. 2013. Asian Tapir (Tapirus indicus): North American Studbook.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

AZA (Association of Zoos & Aquariums). 2024. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2024 Feb 28; data table last updated Jan 2024].

Barongi RA. 1993. Husbandry and conservation of tapirs, Tapirus spp. 1992 International Zoo Yearbook. 32: 7-15.

Caro T, Engilis A E, Fitzherbert E, Gardner T. 2004. Preliminary assessment of the flagship species concept at a small scale. Animal Conservation. 7(1): 63-70.

Castellanos A, Foerester C, Lizcano DJ, Naranjo E, Cruz-Aldan E, Lira-Torres I, Samudio R, Matola S, Schipper J, Gonzalez-Maya J. 2008. Tapirus bairdii. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. < >. Downloaded on 15 April 2009.

Colbert, M. 2009. Tapirus bairdii Digimorph. Downloaded April 17, 2009.

Cozzuol MA, Clozato CL, Holanda EC, Rodrigues FHG, Nienow S, de Thoisy B, Redondo AF. 2013. A new species of tapir from the Amazon. Journal of Mammalogy. 94(6): 1331-1345.

Desmarest. 1819. Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat., Nouv. Ed., 32:458.

Dirks T. 2001. A space odyssey (1968).

Dumbá LCCS, Parisi Dutra R, Cozzuol MA. 2018. Cranial geometric morphometric analysis of the genus Tapirus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). J. Mamm. Ecol. doi:10.1007/s10914-018-9432-2.

Eberle JJ. 2005. A new ‘tapir’ from Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada – Implications for northern high latitude paleobiogeography and tapir palaeobiology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 227: 311-322.

Eisenberg JF. 1997. Tapirs. In: Brooks DM, Bodmer RE, Matola S, eds. Tapirs: Status survey and conservation action plan. Cambridge, UK: IUCN Publications Services. Pp 1-2

Eisenberg JF, Groves CP, MacKinnon K. 1990. Tapirs. In: Grzimek’s Encyclopedia of Mammals Volume 4. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. pp 598-608.

Flesher K. 1999. Preliminary notes on the conservation status of Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii in north-eastern Honduras. Oryx. 33(4): 294-300.

Foerster CR, Vaughan C. 2002. Home range, habitat use, and activity of Baird's tapir in Costa Rica. Biotropica. 34(3): 423-437.

Fradrich H,Thenius E. Tapirs. In: Grzimek, Bernhard, ed., Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol 13, Mammals IV, London : Van Nostrand Reinhold pp 17-33.

Fragoso JM. 1987. Habitat preferences and social structure of tapirs. Thesis of Master of Science, Canada, University of Toronto.

Fragoso J, Williamson M. 1986. Tapir discovery in Belize. Species (Newsletter Species Survival Commission) No. 6: 9.

Garcìa M, Jordan C, O'Farril G, Poot C, Meyer N, Estrada N, Leonardo R, Naranjo E, Simons Á, Herrera A, Urgilés C, Schank C, Boshoff L, Ruiz-Galeano M. 2016. Tapirus bairdii. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.2; e.T21471A45173340 [species assessed 2014 Nov 17; page accessed 2019 Feb 19]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T21471A45173340.en.

Gill. 1865. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 17:183.

Groves C, Grubb P. 2011. Tapiridae. In: Ungulate taxonomy. Baltimore (Maryland): Johns Hopkins University Press; c2011. p. 18-20.

Hershkovitz P. 1954. Mammals of Northern Colombia. Preliminary report No. 7: Tapirs (Genus Tapirus), with a systematic review of American Species, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol 103(3329): 465-496.

Houck ML, Kingswood SC, Kumamoto AT. 2000. Comparative cytogenetics of tapirs, genus Tapirus (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae). Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 89(1/2): 110-115.

Janssen DL. 2003. Tapiridae. In: Fowler M, ed, Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 5th edition Philadelphia: Saunders pp. 569-577

Janssen DL, Rideout BA, Edwards ME. 1999. Tapir Medicine. In: Fowler M, ed., Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy 4th edition. Philadelphia : Saunders pp. 562-568.

Linnaeus (1758) Syst. Nat., 10th edition pp 1-74.

Lizcano DJ, Amanzo J, Castellanos A, Tapia A, Lopez-Malaga CM. 2016. Mountain tapir Tapirus pinchaque. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.2; e.T21473A45173922 [species assessed 2014 Nov 17; page accessed 2019 Feb 19]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T21473A45173922.en.
Lizcano DJ, Pizarro V, Cavelier J, Carmona J. 2002. Geographic distribution and population size of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Colombia. Journal of Biogeography. 29(1):7–15. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00654.x.

McLaughlin R. 1999. Odds & Ends make a magnificent beast. ZOONOOZ. April, pp 8-13.

Matola S, Cuaron AD, Rubio-Torgler H. 1997. Status and Action Plan of Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii). In: Brooks D M, Bodmer R E & Matola S, eds, Tapirs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. 29-45.

Medici EP. 2011. Genus Tapirus. In: Wilson DE & Mittermeier RA (eds). Handbook of Mammals of the World Vol. 2. Hoofed Mammals. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. pp. 198-204.

Naveda A, de Thoisy B, Richard-Hansen C, Torres DA, Salas L, Wallance R, Chalukian S, de Bustos S. 2008. Tapirus terrestris. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.2; e.T21474A9285933 [species assessed 2008 Jun 30; page accessed 2019 Feb 19]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T21474A9285933.en.

Norton JE, Ashley MV. 2004. Genetic variability and population structure among wild Baird's tapirs. Animal Conservation. 7(2): 211-220.

Olmos F. 1997. Tapirs as seed dispersers and predators. In: Brooks DM, Bodmer RE, Matola S, eds. Tapirs; Status survey and conservation action plan. Cambridge (UK): IUCN Publications Services. Pp 3-9.

Overall KL. 1980. Coatis, tapirs and ticks; a case of mammalian interspecific grooming. Biotropica. 12(2): 158.

Ruiz-García M, Castellanos A, Agueda Bernal L, Navas D, Pinedo-Castro M, Shostell MJ. 2015. Mitochondrial gene diversity of the mega-herbivorous species of the genus Tapirus (Tapiridae, Perissodactyla) in South America and some insights on their genetic conservation, systematics and the Pleistocene influence on their genetic characteristics. Advances in Genetic Research. 14:1-51.

Seitz, S. 2000. Comparison for comprehension: behaviour of captive tapirs (Tapirus sp.) and their attractiveness to zoo visitors. Advances in Ethology, (35): 54; 2000; Special Issue: 3rd International Symposium on Physiology and Ethology of Wild and Zoo Animals, Berlin, Germany, 4-7 October, 2000. Editors: Lechner-Doll, Matthias; Hofer, Heribert.

Tapir Gallery: The Official Site of the Tapir Preservation Society.

Tapir Specialist Group. 2019a. Baird's tapir. Accessed 2019 Feb 19.

Tapir Specialist Group. 2019b. Mountain tapir. Accessed 2019 Feb 19.

Tapir Specialist Group. 2019c. Lowland tapir. Accessed 2019 Feb 19.

Terwilliger VJ. 1978. Natural History of Baird’s tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Biotropica. 10(3): 211-230.

Tobler, MW. 2002. Habitat use and diet of Baird's tapirs (Tapirus bairdii) in a montane cloud forest of the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Biotropica. 34(3): 468-474.

Todd S, Matola S. 2001. Tapir. In Bell C, ed. Encyclopedia of Zoos Vol 3, R-Z Pp 1204-1209.

Traeholt C, Novarino W, bin Saaban S, Shwe NM, Lynam A, Zainuddin Z, Simpson B, bin Mohd S. 2016. Malay tapir Tapirus indicus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.2; e.T21472A45173636 [species assessed 2014 Nov 17; page accessed 2019 Feb 19]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T21472A45173636.en.

Trim CM, Lamberski N, Kissel DI, Quandt JE. 1998. Anesthesia in a Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 29(2): 195-198.

UNEP. 2019a. Species+: Tapirus bairdii [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Sep 17].

UNEP. 2019b. Species+: Tapirus indicus [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Sep 17].

UNEP. 2019c. Species+: Tapirus pinchaque [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Sep 17].

UNEP. 2019d. Species+: Tapirus terrestris [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Sep 17].

Varela D, Flesher K, Cartes JL, de Bustos S, Chalukian S, Ayala G, Richard-Hansen C. 2019. Lowland tapir. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019.1; e.T21474A45174127 [species assessed 2018 Jul 31; page accessed 2019 Jun 18]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T21474A45174127.en.

Walton PA. 1983. Study of the behaviour and ecology of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in Belize during the months of May, June and July, 1983. Unpublished., 70pp.

Williams KD. 1984. The Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii, Gill) in Northwestern Costa Rica. Ph.D. dissertation, Mich. StateUniv.; 95p. 1984. From Diss. Abstr. Int. B Sci. Eng. 45(4): 1075. 1984. WR 196.

Wilson DE, Reeder DM. 2005. Mammal species of the world; a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd edition, volume 1 pp 633-634.

Witmer LM, Sampson SD, Solounias N. 1999. The proboscis of tapirs (Mammalia: Perissodactyla): a case study in novel narial anatomy. Journal of Zoology. 249(3): 249-267.

New Occurrences of Fossil Tapir in Southern California Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, Vol. 10, No. 9... Date Published: 1944.

Additional Internet Resources

Nose-to-Nose with a Tapir

Baird's tapir lifting nose

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

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