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Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Abouelezz HG, Donovan TM, Mickey RM, Murdoch JD, Freeman M, Royar K. 2018. Landscape composition mediates movement and habitat selection in bobcats (Lynx rufus): implications for conservation planning. Landsc Ecol. 33(8):1301–1318. doi:10.1007/s10980-018-0654-8.

Allen ML, Wallace CF, Wilmers CC. 2015. Patterns in bobcat (Lynx rufus) scent marking and communication behaviors. J Ethol. 33(1):9–14. doi:10.1007/s10164-014-0418-0.

Alonso RS, Lyren LM, Boydston EE, Haas CD, Crooks KR. 2014. Evaluation of road expansion and connectivity mitigation for wildlife in southern California. Southwest Nat. 59(2):181–187. doi:10.1894/F04-TAL-51.1.

Anderson EM. 1987. A critical review and annotated bibliography of literature on the bobcat. Colorado State Division of Wildlife Report No.: Special Report 62.

Anderson EM. 1990. Bobcat diurnal loafing sites in southeastern Colorado. J Wildl Manag. 54(4):600. doi:10.2307/3809356.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Bailey TN. 1974. Social organization in a bobcat population. J Wildl Manag. 38(3):435. doi:10.2307/3800874.

Bailey TN. 1979. Den ecology, population parameters and diet of eastern Idaho bobcats. In: Proceedings of the Bobcat Research Conference. Vol. 6. Front Royal (VA): National Wildlife Federation. (National Wildlife Federation Scientific and Technical Series). p. 62–69.

Banfield AWF. 1974. Bobcat. In: The mammals of Canada. Ontario (Canada): University of Toronto Press. p. 351–354.

Bencin HL, Prange S, Rose C, Popescu VD. 2019. Roadkill and space use data predict vehicle-strike hotspots and mortality rates in a recovering bobcat (Lynx rufus) population. Sci Rep. 9(1):15391. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-50931-5.

Benson JF, Chamberlain MJ, Leopold BD. 2004. Land tenure and occupation of vacant home ranges by bobcats (Lynx rufus). J Mammal. 85(5):983–988. doi:10.1644/BWG-132.

Blankenship TL, Haines AM, Tewes ME, Silvy NJ. 2006. Comparing survival and cause-specific mortality between resident and transient bobcats Lynx rufus. Wildl Biol. 12(3):297–303. doi:10.2981/0909-6396(2006)12[297:CSACMB]2.0.CO;2.

Boyles E, Tan H, Wu Y, Nielsen CK, Shen L, Reiner EJ, Chen D. 2017. Halogenated flame retardants in bobcats from the midwestern United States. Environ Pollut. 221:191–198. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.11.063.

Broman DJA, Litvaitis JA, Ellingwood M, Tate P, Reed GC. 2014. Modeling bobcat Lynx rufus habitat associations using telemetry locations and citizen-scientist observations: Are the results comparable? Wildl Biol. 20(4):229–237. doi:10.2981/wlb.00022.

Bunnell C, Bassett S, Millgate E, Weis J, Flinders J, Hill H. 2007. Utah bobcat management plan 2007–2016. Salt Lake City (UT): Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.

Camacho-Macías B, Hernandez-Camacho N, Cantó Alarcón GJ, Muñóz-García CI, Pineda-López R, Pineda-López RF, Zamora-Ledesma S, Moreno-Pérez MA. 2018. Intestinal parasites of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in areas surrounding Queretaro, Mexico. Therya. 9(1):7–17. doi:10.12933/therya-18-501.

Carroll RP. 2019. Direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic land use on bobcats (Lynx rufus) in New England [Ph.D. thesis]. [Durham, NH]: University of New Hampshire, Durham.

Carroll RP, Litvaitis MK, Clements SJ, Stevens CL, Litvaitis JA. 2019. History matters: contemporary versus historic population structure of bobcats in the New England region, USA. Conserv Genet. 20(4):743–757. doi:10.1007/s10592-019-01170-8.

Carter TD. 1955. Remarkable age attained by a bobcat. J Mammal. 36(2):290. doi:10.2307/1375897.

Chamberlain MJ, Leopold BD. 2005. Overlap in space use among bobcats (Lynx rufus), coyotes (Canis latrans) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Am Midl Nat. 153(1):171–179. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2005)153[0171:OISUAB]2.0.CO;2.

Chamberlain MJ, Leopold BD, Conner LM. 2003. Space use, movements and habitat selection of adult bobcats (Lynx rufus) in central Mississippi. Am Midl Nat. 149(2):395–405. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2003)149[0395:SUMAHS]2.0.CO;2.

Conner M, Plowman B, Leopold BD, Lovell C. 1999. Influence of time-in-residence on home range and habitat use of bobcats. J Wildl Manag. 63(1):261. doi:10.2307/3802508.

Croteau EK, Heist EJ, Nielsen CK. 2010. Fine-scale population structure and sex-biased dispersal in bobcats (Lynx rufus) from southern Illinois. Can J Zool. 88(6):536–545. doi:10.1139/Z10-024.

Croteau EK, Heist EJ, Nielsen CK, Hutchinson JR, Hellgren EC. 2012. Microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA reveal regional population structure in bobcats (Lynx rufus) of North America. Conserv Genet. 13(6):1637–1651. doi:10.1007/s10592-012-0416-0.

Crowe DM. 1975a. Aspects of ageing, growth, and reproduction of bobcats from Wyoming. J Mammal. 56(1):177–198. doi:10.2307/1379615.

Crowe DM. 1975b. A model for exploited bobcat populations in Wyoming. J Wildl Manag. 39(2):408. doi:10.2307/3799921.

Cumbie PM. 1975. Mercury in hair of bobcats and raccoons. J Wildl Manag. 39(2):419. doi:10.2307/3799923.

Daoust P-Y, McBurney SR, Godson DL, van de Bildt MWG, Osterhaus ADME. 2009. Canine distemper virus–associated encephalitis in free-living lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) of eastern Canada. J Wildl Dis. 45(3):611–624. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-45.3.611.

Diefenbach D, Hansen L, Bohling J, Miller-Butterworth C. 2015. Population and genetic outcomes 20 years after reintroducing bobcats (Lynx rufus) to Cumberland Island, Georgia USA. Ecol Evol. 5(21):4885–4895. doi:10.1002/ece3.1750.

Dobson FS, Wigginton JD. 1996. Environmental influences on the sexual dimorphism in body size of western bobcats. Oecologia. 108(4):610–616. doi:10.1007/BF00329033.

Dorcas ME, Willson JD, Reed RN, Snow RW, Rochford MR, Miller MA, Meshaka WE, Andreadis PT, Mazzotti FJ, Romagosa CM, et al. 2012. Severe mammal declines coincide with proliferation of invasive Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 109(7):2418–2422. doi:10.1073/pnas.1115226109.

Duke KL. 1949. Some notes on the histology of the ovary of the bobcat (Lynx) with special reference to the corpora lutea. Anat Rec. 103(1):111–131. doi:10.1002/ar.1091030108.

Elbroch LM, Robertson L, Combs K, Fitzgerald J. 2017. Contrasting bobcat values. Biodivers Conserv. 26(12):2987–2992. doi:10.1007/s10531-017-1397-6.

Elizalde-Arellano C, López-Vidal JC, Hernández L, Laundré JW, Cervantes FA, Alonso-Spilsbury M. 2012. Home range size and activity patterns of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the southern part of their range in the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico. Am Midl Nat. 168(2):247–264. doi:10.1674/0003-0031-168.2.247.

Fedriani JM, Fuller TK, Sauvajot RM, York EC. 2000. Competition and intraguild predation among three sympatric carnivores. Oecologia. 125(2):258–270. doi:10.1007/s004420000448.

Ferguson AW, Currit NA, Weckerly FW. 2009. Isometric scaling in home-range size of male and female bobcats (Lynx rufus). Can J Zool. 87(11):1052–1060. doi:10.1139/Z09-095.

Flores-Morales M, Vázquez J, Bautista A, Rodríguez-Martínez L, Monroy-Vilchis O. 2019. Response of two sympatric carnivores to human disturbances of their habitat: the bobcat and coyote. Mammal Res. 64(1):53–62. doi:10.1007/s13364-018-0385-x.

Fritts SH, Sealander JA. 1978. Reproductive biology and population characteristics of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Arkansas. J Mammal. 59(2):347–353. doi:10.2307/1379919.

Fuller TK, Berendzen SL, Decker TA, Cardoza JE. 1995. Survival and cause-specific mortality rates of adult bobcats (Lynx rufus). Am Midl Nat. 134(2):404. doi:10.2307/2426311.

Fuller TK, Berg WE, Kuehn DW. 1985. Survival rates and mortality factors of adult bobcats in north-central Minnesota. J Wildl Manag. 49(2):292. doi:10.2307/3801518.

Gashwiler JS, Robinette WL, Morris OW. 1961. Breeding habits of bobcats in Utah. J Mammal. 42(1):76. doi:10.2307/1377245.

George SL, Crooks KR. 2006. Recreation and large mammal activity in an urban nature reserve. Biol Conserv. 133(1):107–117. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.05.024.

Hall ER. 1981. Lynx rufus, bobcat. In: Mammals of North America. 2nd edition. New York: John Wiley. p. 1051–1055.

Harrison RL. 1998. Bobcats in residential areas: distribution and homeowner attitudes. Southwest Nat. 43(4):469–475.

Harrison RL. 2010. Ecological relationships of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Chihuahuan Desert of New Mexico. Southwest Nat. 55(3):374–381. doi:10.1894/SGM-03.1.

Hass CC. 2009. Competition and coexistence in sympatric bobcats and pumas. J Zool. 278(3):174–180. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00565.x.

Hemmer H. 1976. Gestation period and postnatal development in felids. In: Eaton RL, editor. The world’s cats, vol. 3 (No. 2): contributions to biology, ecology and evolution. Seattle (WA): Carnivore Research Institute. p. 143–165.

Hemmer H. 1980. Gestation period and postnatal development in felids. Carnivore. 2(2):90–100.

Hendey QB. 1972. The late Cenozoic carnivora of the south-western Cape Province [Ph.D.]. [Durban (South Africa)]: University of Natal. [accessed 2020 Mar 10].

Henke SE, Bryant FC. 1999. Effects of coyote removal on the faunal community in western Texas. J Wildl Manag. 63(4):1066. doi:10.2307/3802826.

Homyack JA, Vashon JH, Libby C, Lindquist EL, Loch S, McAlpine DF, Pilgrim KL, Schwartz MK. 2008. Canada lynx-bobcat (Lynx canadensis × L. rufus) hybrids at the southern periphery of lynx range in Maine, Minnesota and New Brunswick. Am Midl Nat. 159(2):504–508. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2008)159[504:CLLCLR]2.0.CO;2.

Horne JS, Haines AM, Tewes ME, Laack LL. 2009. Habitat partitioning by sympatric ocelots and bobcats: implications for recovery of ocelots in southern texas. Southwest Nat. 54(2):119–126. doi:10.1894/PS-49.1.

Hughes AM, Reding DM, Tucker SA, Gosselink TE, Clark WR. 2019. Dispersal of juvenile bobcats in a recolonizing population. J Wildl Manag. 83(8):1711–1719. doi:10.1002/jwmg.21747.

ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) [Internet database]. 2020. Lynx rufus. TSN 180582. [accessed 2020 Jan 29].

Jackson HHT. 1961. Family Felidae: cats and allies. In: Mammals of Wisconsin. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Press. p. 389–406.

Janečka JE, Blankenship TL, Hirth DH, Tewes ME, Kilpatrick CW, Grassman LI. 2006. Kinship and social structure of bobcats (Lynx rufus) inferred from microsatellite and radio-telemetry data. J Zool. 269(4):494–501. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00099.x.

Jennings M. 2017. Bobcat Lynx rufus. In: San Diego County Mammal Atlas. San Diego (CA): San Diego Natural History Museum. p. 261–263.

Johnson SA, Walker HD, Hudson CM. 2010. Dispersal characteristics of juvenile bobcats in south-central Indiana. J Wildl Manag. 74(3):379–385. doi:10.2193/2008-253.

Jones ML. 1977. Record keeping and longevity of felids in captivity. In: The world’s cats, vol. 3: contributions to breeding biology, behavior and husbandry. Seattle (WA): Carnivore Research Institute. p. 132–138.

Kays R, Parsons AW, Baker MC, Kalies EL, Forrester T, Costello R, Rota CT, Millspaugh JJ, McShea WJ. 2017. Does hunting or hiking affect wildlife communities in protected areas? J Appl Ecol. 54(1):242–252. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12700.

Kelly M, Morin D, Lopez-Gonzalez CA. 2016. Bobcat, Lynx rufus. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2019.3; e.T12521A50655874 (species assessed 2016 Feb 11; page accessed 2020 Jan 29). doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T12521A50655874.en.

Kelson KR. 1946. Notes on the comparative osteology of the bobcat and the house cat. J Mammal. 27(3):255. doi:10.2307/1375436.

Kitchener AC, Breitemoser-Würsten C, Eizirik E, Gentry A, Werdelin L, Wilting A, Wamaguchi N, Abramov A, Christiansen P, Driscoll C, et al. 2017. A revised taxonomy of the Felidae. The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group. Cat News Spec. Issue 11, 80 pages.

Knick ST, Brittell JD, Sweeney SJ. 1985. Population characteristics of bobcats in Washington State. J Wildl Manag. 49(3):721. doi:10.2307/3801701.

Knick ST, Sweeny SJ, Alldredge JR, Brittell JD. 1984. Autumn and winter food habits of bobcats in Washington State. Gt Basin Nat. 44(1):70–74.

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Koehler GM, Hornocker MG. 1991. Seasonal resource use among mountain lions, bobcats, and coyotes. J Mammal. 72(2):391–396. doi:10.2307/1382112.

Kozakiewicz CP, Burridge CP, Funk WC, Salerno PE, Trumbo DR, Gagne RB, Boydston EE, Fisher RN, Lyren LM, Jennings MK, et al. 2019. Urbanization reduces genetic connectivity in bobcats (Lynx rufus) at both intra- and interpopulation spatial scales. Mol Ecol. 28(23):5068–5085. doi:10.1111/mec.15274.

Larivière S, Walton LR. 1997. Lynx rufus. Mamm Species. 563:1–8.

Lawhead DN. 1984. Bobcat Lynx rufus home range, density and habitat preference in south-central Arizona. Southwest Nat. 29(1):105. doi:10.2307/3670775.

Lee JS, Ruell EW, Boydston EE, Lyren LM, Alonso RS, Troyer JL, Crooks KR, VandeWoude S. 2012. Gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscape. Mol Ecol. 21(7):1617–1631. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05493.x.

Lenth BE, Knight RL, Brennan ME. 2008. The effects of dogs on wildlife communities. Nat Areas J. 28(3):218–227. doi:10.3375/0885-8608(2008)28[218:TEODOW]2.0.CO;2.

Litvaitis JA, Major JT, Sherburne JA. 1987. Influence of season and human-induced mortality on spatial organization of bobcats (Felis rufus) in Maine. J Mammal. 68(1):100–106. doi:10.2307/1381051.

Litvaitis JA, Tash JP, Stevens CL. 2006. The rise and fall of bobcat populations in New Hampshire: Relevance of historical harvests to understanding current patterns of abundance and distribution. Biol Conserv. 128(4):517–528. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.10.019.

Lombardi JV, Comer CE, Scognamillo DG, Conway WC. 2017. Coyote, fox, and bobcat response to anthropogenic and natural landscape features in a small urban area. Urban Ecosyst. 20(6):1239–1248. doi:10.1007/s11252-017-0676-z.

Lovallo MJ, Anderson EM. 1996. Bobcat (Lynx rufus) home range size and habitat use in northwest Wisconsin. Am Midl Nat. 135(2):241. doi:10.2307/2426706.

Maehr DS, Brady JR. 1986. Food habits of bobcats in Florida. J Mammal. 67(1):133–138. doi:10.2307/1381009.

Marshall AD, Jenkins JH. 1966. Movements and home ranges of bobcats as determined by radio tracking in the upper coastal plain of west-central South Carolina. Proc Annu Conf Southeast Assoc Game Fish Comm. 20:206–214.

Marston MA. 1942. Winter relations of bobcats to white-tailed deer in Maine. J Wildl Manag. 6(4):328. doi:10.2307/3795920.

Matson JR. 1948. Cats kill deer [general notes]. J Mammal. 29(1):66. doi:10.2307/1375283.

Mautz WW, Pekins PJ. 1989. Metabolic rate of bobcats as influenced by seasonal temperatures. J Wildl Manag. 53(1):202. doi:10.2307/3801332.

McCord CM. 1974a. Selection of winter habitat by bobcats (Lynx rufus) on the Quabbin Reservation, Massachusetts. J Mammal. 55(2):428–437. doi:10.2307/1379010.

McCord CM. 1974b. Courtship behavior in free-ranging bobcats. In: Eaton RL, editor. The world’s cats, vol. 2: biology, behavior and management of reproduction. Seattle (WA): Feline Research Group. p. 76–89.

McCord CM, Cardoza JE. 1982. Bobcat and lynx. In: Chapman JA, Feldhamer GA, editors. Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and economics. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 728–766.

Miller SD, Speake DW. 1979. Demography and home range of the bobcat in south Alabama. In: Proceedings of the Bobcat Research Conference. Vol. 6. Front Royal (VA): National Wildlife Federation. (National Wildlife Federation Scientific and Technical Series). p. 123–124.

Millions DG, Swanson BJ. 2007. Impact of natural and artificial barriers to dispersal on the population structure of bobcats. J Wildl Manag. 71(1):96–102. doi:10.2193/2005-563.

Mehrer CF. 1975. Some aspects of reproduction in captive mountain lions Felis concolor, bobcat Lynx rufus, and lynx Lynx canadensis [Ph.D dissertation]. Grand Folks (ND): University of North Dakota.

Moriarty JG. 2007. Female bobcat reproductive behavior and kitten survival in an urban fragmented landscape [master’s thesis]. [Northridge, CA]: California State University, Northridge.

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Nielsen CK, Bottom CR, Tebo RG, Greenspan E. 2018. Habitat overlap among bobcats (Lynx rufus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in an agricultural landscape. Can J Zool. 96(5):486–496. doi:10.1139/cjz-2017-0079.

Nielsen CK, Woolf A. 2001. Spatial organization of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in southern Illinois. Am Midl Nat. 146(1):43–52. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2001)146[0043:SOOBLR]2.0.CO;2.

Nielsen CK, Woolf A. 2002. Survival of unexploited bobcats in southern Illinois. J Wildl Manag. 66(3):833. doi:10.2307/3803147.

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Pence DB, Matthews FD, Windberg LA. 1982. Notoedric mange in the bobcat, Felis rufus, from south Texas. J Wildl Dis. 18(1):47–50. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-18.1.47.

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Additional Internet Resources


Bobcat standing with squared, looking away

Bobcat at the San Diego Zoo.

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

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