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California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Birdlife International. 2015. Gymnogyps californianus. In: IUCN 2015. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2016.2. [accessed 2016 Nov 01].

Birdlife International. 2017. Gymnogyps californianus. In: IUCN 2017. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2017-3: e.T22697636A117799192 [accessed 2018 Jun 27].

BirdLife International. 2018. Gymnogyps californianus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019.1; e.T22697636A131043782 [species assessed 2018 Aug 07; page accessed 2019 Jun 04]. 

Bukowinski AT, Bercovitch FB, Alberts AC, Wallace AP, Mace ME, Ancona S. 2007. A quantitative assessment of the California Condor mentoring program. In: Mee A, Hall LS, editors. California Condors in the 21st Century (Series in Ornithology No 2). Washington, DC: American Ornithologists' Union; p. 197-211.

Burnett LJ, Sorenson KJ, Brandt J, Sandhaus EA, Ciani D, Clark M, David C, Theule J, Kasielke S, Risebrough RW. 2013. Eggshell thinning and depressed hatching success of California Condors reintroduced to central California. The Condor. 115(3):477-491.

California Condor: San Diego Zoo Animals. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed 2016 Dec 07].

California Condor: California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Prepared by Jurek RM; revised by Battistone C, April 2014. Sacramento (CA): California Department of Fish and Wildlife [accessed 2016 Dec 15].

Campbell MON. 2015. Vultures: their evolution, ecology, and conservation. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.

Checklist of CITES species. CITES; [accessed 2016 June 16].

Cogan CB, D’Elia J, Convery K, Brandt J, Bulgerin T. 2012. Analysis of California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) activity using satellite telemetry data. Open Ornithology Journal. 5:82-93.

Collins PW, Noel FRS, Emslie SD. 2000. Faunal remains in California Condor nest caves. Cooper Ornithological Society.[0222:FRICCN]2.0.CO;2

D'Elia J, Haig SM. 2013. California Condors in the Pacific Northwest. Corvalis (OR): Oregon State University Press.

D'Elia J, Haig SM, Mullins TD, Miller MP. 2016. Ancient DNA reveals substantial genetic diversity in the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) prior to a population bottleneck. The Condor. 118(4):703-714.

del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J, editors. 1994. Family Cathartidae (New World Vultures). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Ediciones; p. 24-41.

Emslie SD. 1988. The fossil history and phylogenetic relationships of condors (Ciconiiformes: Vulturidae) in the New World. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 8(2):212-228.

Ericson PGP, Anderson CL, Britton T, Elzanowski A, Johansson US, Källersjö M, Ohlson JI, Parsons TJ, Zuccon D, Mayr G. 2006. Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters. 2(4):543-547.

Finkelstein M, Kuspa Z, Snyder N, Schmitt NJ. 2015a. California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). In: Rodewald P, editor. The Birds of North America (online). Ithaca (NY): Cornell Lab of Ornithology; [accessed 2016 November 04].

Finkelstein ME, Brandt J, Sandhaus E, Grantham J, Mee A, Schuppert PJ, Smith DR. 2015b. Lead exposure risk from trash ingestion by the endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 51(4):901-906.

Finkelstein ME, Doak DF, George D, Burnett J, Brandt J, Church M, Grantham J, Smith DR. 2012. Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California Condor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109(28):11449–11454.

Finkelstein ME, Kuspa ZE, Welch A, Eng C, Clark M, Burnett J, Smith DR. 2014. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California Condor using stable lead isotope analysis. Environmental Research. 134:270-279.

Hackett SJ, Kimball RT, Reddy S, Bowie RCK, Braun EL, Braun MJ, Chojnowski JL, Cox WA, Han K-L, Harshman J et al. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science. 320(5884):1763-1768.

Harvey NC, Dankovchik JD, Kuehler CM, Levites T, Kasielke S, Kiff L, Wallace MP, Mace ME. 2004. Egg size, fertility, hatchability, and chick survivability in captive California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Zoo Biology. 23(6):489-500.

Historical Correspondence of Belle Benchley, 1949-1993 [Box 2, Folder 1]. California Condor Propagation Program papers, ZSSD-786, Zoological Society of San Diego Archives.

Hunt WG, Parish CN, Orr K, Aguilar RF. 2009. Lead poisoning and the reintroduction of the California Condor in northern Arizona. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 23(2):145-150.

Johnson JA, Brown JW, Fuchs J, Mindell DP. 2016. Multi-locus phylogenetic inference among New World Vultures (Aves: Cathartidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 105:193-199.

Kelly TR, Grantham J, George D, Welch A, Brandt J, Burnett LJ, Sorenson KJ, Johnson M, Poppenga R, Moen D et al. 2014. Spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors for lead exposure in endangered California Condors during 15 years of reintroduction. Conservation Biology. 28(6):1721-1730.

Koford C. 1953. The California Condor. New York (NY): National Audubon Society. Research Report No. 4.

Kurle CM, Bakker VJ, Copeland H, Burnett J, Jones Scherbinski J, Brandt J, Finkelstein ME. 2016. Terrestrial scavenging of marine mammals: Cross-ecosystem contaminant transfer and potential risks to endangered California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Environmental Science & Technology. 50(17):9114-9123.

Lederer RJ, Burr C. 2014. Latin for bird lovers: over 3,000 bird names explored and explained. Portland (OR): Timber Press.

Mee A, Rideout BA, Hamber JA, Todd J, Austin G, Clark M, Wallace M. 2007. Junk ingestion and nestling mortality in a reintroduced population of California Condors Gymnogyps californianus. Bird Conservation International. 17(2):119-130. 

Mee A, Snyder N. 2007. California Condors in the 21st century—conservation problems and solutions. In: Mee A, Hall LS, editors. California Condors in the 21st Century (Series in Ornithology No 2). Washington, DC: American Ornithologists' Union; p. 243-279.

Meretsky VJ, Snyder NFR, Beissinger SR, Clendenen DA, Wiley JW. 2000. Demography of the California Condor: implications for reestablishment. Conservation Biology. 14(4):957-967.

Rideout BA, Stalis I, Papendick R, Pessier A, Puschner B, Finkelstein ME, Smith DR, Johnson M, Mace M, Stroud R et al. 2012. Patterns of mortality in free-ranging California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 48(1):95-112.

Rivers JW, Johnson JM, Haig SM, Schwarz CJ, Burnett LJ, Brandt J, George D, Grantham J. 2014a. An analysis of monthly home range size in the critically endangered California Condor Gymnogyps californianus. Bird Conservation International. 24(4):492-504.

Rivers JW, Johnson JM, Haig SM, Schwarz CJ, Glendening JW, Burnett LJ, George D, Grantham J. 2014b. Resource selection by the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions. PloS One. 9(2):e88430.

Robinson JA, Bowie RCK, Dudchenko O, Aiden EL, Hendrickson SL, Steiner CC, Ryder OA, Mindell DP, Wall JD. 2021 May. Genome-wide diversity in the California condor tracks its prehistoric abundance and decline. Current Biology. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2021.04.035

San Diego Zoo Global History Timeline. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global Library; [accessed 07 Dec 2016].

Scott, JM and NF Snyder. 1985. Historical Correspondence, 1979-1985 [Box 8, Folder 2]. California Condor Propagation Program papers, ZSSD-786, Zoological Society of San Diego Archives.

Sheppard JK, Walenski M, Wallace MP, Velazco JJV, Porras C, Swaisgood RR. 2013. Hierarchical dominance structure in reintroduced California Condors: correlates, consequences, and dynamics. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 67(8):1227-1238.

Simons D. 1983. Interactions between California Condors and humans in prehistoric far western North America. In: Wilbur S, Jackson J, editors. Vulture biology and management. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press; p. 470-494.

Snyder N, Snyder H. 2000. The California Condor: a saga of natural history and conservation. San Diego (CA): Academic Press.

Snyder NFR, Hamber JA. 1985. Replacement-clutching and annual nesting of California Condors. The Condor. 87(3):374-378.

Snyder NFR, Ramey RR, Sibley FC. 1986. Nest-site biology of the California Condor. The Condor. 88(2):228-241.

Snyder NFR, Snyder HA. 2005. Introduction to the California Condor. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press.

Syverson VJ, Prothero DR. 2010. Evolutionary patterns in late quaternary California Condors. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 7(1):1-18.

Toone, CK and PN Witman. [Undated]. Artificial incubation of California Condor Gymnogyps californianus eggs removed from the wild. Historical papers: captive breeding and hatching, 1979-1985 [Box 8, Folder 1]. California Condor Propagation Program papers, ZSSD-786, Zoological Society of San Diego Archives.

Toone WD, Risser J, Arthur C. 1988. Captive management of the California Condor. International Zoo Yearbook. 27:50-58.

UNEP. 2019. Species+: Gymnopgyps californianus [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Jun 04].

United States Department of the Interior. 2015. California Condor Recovery Program Annual Report - 2015. [accessed 2016 Nov 01].

United States Department of the Interior. 2017. California Condor Recovery Program Annual Report - 2017. [accessed 2017 Oct 23].

United States Department of the Interior. 2019. California Condor Recovery Program Annual Report - 2019 Annual Population Report. [accessed 2020 Mar 10].

United States Fish & Wildlife Service Endangered Species Database. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service; [accessed 2016 November 01].

van Dooren T. 2011. Vulture. London: Reaktion Books.

Wallace W, Lathrap D. 1959. Ceremonial bird burials in San Francisco Bay shellmounds. American Antiquities. 25:262-264.

Walters JR, Derrickson SR, Michael Fry D, Haig SM, Marzluff JM, Wunderle Jr JM. 2010. Status of the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and efforts to achieve its recovery. The Auk. 127(4):969-1001.

Additional Internet Resources


Recommended Reading

California Condors of the Pacific Northwest (book cover)

California Condors in the Pacific Northwest by Jesse D'Elia and Susan M. Haig (2013). Corvallis (OR): Oregon State Univeristy Press.

Superb historical research. Brings strong organization and insight to the complex cultural and conservation history surrounding California Condors. A fascinating book for those just getting acquainted with condors as well as those seeking to deepen their knowledge.

San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance staff and volunteers
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California Condor

Head of CA Condor

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