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Carmine Bee-eaters (Merops nubicus & M. nubicoides) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Birdlife International. 2016a. Merops nubicus. In: IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.3. <>. [accessed 2018 Jun 19].

Birdlife International. 2016b. Merops nubicoides. In: IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017.3. <>. [accessed 2018 Jun 19].

Brooke, M. T. Birkhead 1991. The Cambridge encyclopedia of ornithology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 362 p.

Casas-Crivillé and F. Valera. The European bee-eater (Merops apiaster) as an ecosystem engineer in arid environments. Journal of Arid Environments. 60(2):227-238.

Clarke, J., D. Ksepka, A. Smith, M. Norell 2009. Combined phylogenetic analysis of a new North American fossil species confirms widespread Eocene distribution for stem rollers (Aves, Coracii). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 157 (3) 586-611.

Dubey, J. M. Garner, M. Stettert, A. Marsh, B. Barr. 2001. Acute Sarcocystis falcatula-like infection in a Carmine Bee-Eater (Merops nubicus) and immunohistochemical cross reactivity between Sarcosystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona. Journal of Parasitology 87(4):824-832.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N., and Kirwan, G.M. 2018. Southern Carmine Bee-eater (Merops nubicoides). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (editors). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 2018 Jun 19).

del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J. Sargatal (eds) 1992. Ostrich to Ducks. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1 p 696.

_________________________________ 2001. Family Meropidae (bee-eaters). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 6. Mousebirds to hornbills. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 286-325.

Elston, J. J. Carney, G. Quinones, C. Sky, C. Plasse, T. Bettinger. 2007. Use of novel nest boxes by Carmine Bee-eaters (Merops nubicus) in captivity. Zoo Biology 26:27-39.

Emlen, S. 1990. The white-fronted bee-eater: helping in a colonially nesting species. In: Stacey, P. and W. Koenig (Eds.) Cooperative breeding in birds: long-term studies of ecology and behavior. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp 305-339.

Fry, C. 1969. The evolution and systematics of Bee-eaters (Meropidae). Ibis. 111(4); 557-592.

Fry, C. 1984. The Bee-eaters. Buteo Books, Vermillion, South Dakota.

Fry, C. and K. Fry. 1992. Kingfishers, Bee-eaters and Rollers: A Handbook. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Fry, C. 2001. Family Meropidae (Bee-Eaters) In: del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J.Sargatal (Eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 6. Mousebirds to Hornbills. Lynx Edicions. Barcelona. pp. 286-341.

Fry, H., Boesman, P. & Kirwan, G.M. 2018. Northern Carmine Bee-eater (Merops nubicus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (editors). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 2018 Jun 19).

Hackett, S., R. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. Bowie, E. Braun, M. Braun, et al 2008. A phylogenetic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320(5884):1763-1768.

Higes, M., R. Martin-Hernández, E. Garrido-Bailón, C. Botias, P. Garcia-Palencia, A. Meana 2008. Regurgitated pellets of Merops apiaster as fomites of infective Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) spores. Environmental Microbiology 10(5):1374-9.

Hoare, B. Animal Migration 2009. University of California Press. Berkeley, Los Angeles, USA. pp.148-149.

ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) 2010. Merops. Linnaeus, 1758. dowloaded March 2010.

IUCN 2008. Merops nubicus. Redlist of Threatened Species.

Lessells C. 1990. Helping at the nest in European bee-eaters: who helps and why, pp. 357-368. In: Blondel J. et al. (Eds). Population Biology of Passerine Birds, An Integrated Approach. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Marks, B., J. Weckstein, R. Moyle 2007. Molecular phylogenetics of the bee-eaters (Aves: Meropidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 45(1):23-32.

Price, R. and K. Emerson 1977. The Genus Meromenopon (Mallophaga: Menoponidae) from the Coraciiformes (Aves). Journal of the Kansas entomological Society. 50(2):215-221.

Ryan, P. 2009. Showtime: Carmine Bee-eaters. Africa - Birds & Birding. August/September 2009. Percy Fitzpatrick Institute of African Ornithology.

Sibley, C. and B. Monroe. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.

Sibley, C. and J.E. Ahlquist 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

Watve, M., J. Thakar, A. Kale, S. Putambekar, I Shaikh, K. Vaze, M. Jog, S. Paranjape 2002. Bee-eaters (Merops orientalis) respond to what a predator can see. Animals Cognition 2002 5(4):253-9.

Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS). Ver 2.1. 2015. [updated 2015 May 19; accessed 2015 May 19 2015].

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