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Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Adamson, J. 1969. The Spotted Sphinx. London: Collins.

Anonymous. 1940. Notes from a zoo diary. Zoonooz, 12(2): 1-5.

Anonymous. Life of a baby cheetah: eating ... sleeping. 1971. Zoonooz, 44(1): 7.

Anonymous. 1996. Veterinarians Perform First Cheetah Vasectomies on Fossil Rim Animals.  Views From the Rim: Fossil Rim Wildlife Center, Spring 1995, Vol 1:1. In: International Studbook: Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus 1994-1995. L. Marker-Kraus, studbook keeper. 1996. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian.

Arora, B.M., N.S. Parihar and P.N. Kumar. 1999. Fate of imported cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) at National Zoo. Tigerpaper, 26(4): 29-30.

Asa, S., R.E. Junge, J. S. Bircher, G. A. Noble, K. J. Sarri, and E. D. Plotka. 1992. Assessing reproductive cycles and pregnancy in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Zoo Biology, 11: 139-151.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Beekman, S.P.A., M. de Wit, J. Louwman, and H. Louwman. 1997. Breeding and observation on the behaviour of cheetah Acinonyx jubatus at the Wassenaar Wildlife Breeding Centre. International Zoo Yearbook, 35:43-50.

Beekman, S. P.A., B. Kemp, H. C.M. Louwman, and B. Colenbrander. 1999. Analyses of factors influencing the birth weight and neonatal growth rate of cheeah (Acinonyx jubatus) Cubs. Zoo Biology, 18: 129-139.

Bircher, J. S., and G. A. Noble. 1997. Management of cheetah Acinonyx jubatus at Saint Louis Zoological Park. International Zoo Yearbook, 35:51-58.

Brahmachary, R.L., M. Singh and M. Rajput. 1999. Scent marking in the Asiatic lion. Current Science, 76(4): 480.

Brown, E. W., R. A. Olmstead, J. S. Martenson and S. J. O’Brien. 1993. Exposure to FIV and FIPV in wild and captive cheetahs. Zoo Biology, 12:135-142.

Byers, O., D. Wildt and U. Seal, eds. 1995. Felid Conservation Assessment and Management Plan and Global Captive Action Recommendations: Working Document August 1995. Apple Valley MN, IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group.

Caro, T.M. 1993. Behavioral solutions to breeding cheetahs in captivity: insights from the wild." Zoo Biology, 12:19-30.

Caro, T.M. 1994. Cheetahs of the Serengeti Plains: Group Living in an Asocial Species. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Caro, T.M., and M. K. Laurensen. 1994. Ecological and genetic factors in conservation: a cautionary tale. Science, 263: 485-486.

Charruau P, Ferndandes C, Orozco-Ter Wengel P, Peters J, Hunter L et al. 2011. Phylogeography, genetic structure and population divergence time of cheetahs in Africa and Asia: evidence for long-term geographic isolates. Journal of Molecular Ecology.20: 706-724.

Collier, G. E. and O'Brien, S. J. 1985. A molecular phylogeny of the Felidae: immunological distance. Evolution, 39(3): 473-487.

Crosier A, Lackey LB, Spevak E. 2015. Population Analysis and Breeding and Transfer Plan. Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). AZA Species Survival Plan Yellow Program. Smithsonian's Conservation Biology Institute Center for Species Survival. 66 p.

Czekala, N.M., B.S. Durrant, L. Callison, M. Williams, and S. Millard. 1994. Fecal steriod hormone analysis as an indicator of reproductive function in the cheetah. Zoo Biology, 13:199-128.

Davis BW, Li G, Murphy WJ. 2010. Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56(1):64-76.

Dierenfeld, E. S. 1993. Nutrition of captive cheetahs: food composition and blood paramenters. Zoo Biology 12:143-150.

Downes, S.J.T. 1999. A case report of suspected copper deficiency in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). In: 1997/1998 International Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Studbook by Laurie Marker. Otjiwarongo, Namibia, Cheetah Conservation Fund. Computer disk format.

Duncan, K. A. 1996. A cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) behavioral observation study and analysis of management techniques at Binder Park Zoo. In: International Studbook: Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus by Laurie Marker-Kraus. Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution.

Durant, S. M., 2000a. Predator avoidance, breeding experience and reproductive success in endangered cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus. Animal Behavior, 60: 121-130.

Durant, S. M., 2000b. Living with the enemy: avoidance of hyenas and lions by cheetahs in the Serengeti." Behavioral Ecology, 11(6): 624-632.

Durant, S. L. Marker, N. Purchase, F. Belbachir, L. Hunter, C. Packer et al. 2008. Acinonyx jubatus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2 <> Retrieved 02 January 2012.

Durant, S.M., M. Kelly, and T.M. Caro. 2004. Factors affecting life and death in Serengeti cheetahs: environment, age, and sociality. Behavioral Ecology, 15(1): 11-22.

Durant SM, Mitchell N, Groom R, Pettorelli N, Ipavec A, Jacobson AP, Woodroffe R, Böhm M, Hunter LTB, Becker MS, et al. 2017. The global decline of cheetah Acinonyx jubatus and what it means for conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114(3):528–533. doi:10.1073/pnas.1611122114.
Durant S, Mitchell N, Ipavec A, Groom R. 2015. Acinonyx jubatus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018-2; e.T219A50649567 [species assessed 2014 May 28; page accessed 2018 Nov 27].

Eaton, R. L. 1974. The Cheetah: The Biology, Ecology, and Behavior of an Endangered Species. Behavioral Science Series.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 178 pp.

Ellerman, J. R., and T.C.S. Morrison-Scott. 1951. Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian Mammals: 1758 to 1946. London: London Trustees of the British Museum. 810 pp.

Estes, R. D. 1990. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Berkeley: University of California Press. 609 pp.

Frame, G, and L. Frame. 1981. Swift and Enduring: Cheetahs and Wild Dogs of the Serengeti. New York: E.P. Dutton. 242 pp.

Gosselin, S.J., et al. 1989. Nutritional considerations in the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease in captive cheetahs. Zoo Biology, 8:339-347.

Graham, L.H., K.L. Goodrowe, J.I. Raeside, R.M. Liptrap. 1995. Non-invasive monitoring of ovarian function in several felid species by measurement of fecal estradiol-17beta and progestins. Zoo Biology, 14:223-237.

Graham, L.H., and J. L. Brown. 1997. Non-invasive assessment of gonadal and adrenocortical function in felid species via faecal steriod analysis. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Physiologie and Ethology of Wild and Zoo Animals: Proceedings Supple. II, pp. 78-82.

Griner, L. A. 1970. Cheetahs at the Wild Animal Park. Zoonooz, 43(10): 12-14

Grisham, J. and L. Marker-Kraus. 1993. 1993 North American cheetah Species Survival Plan (SSP) report. In: International Studbook: Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus 1993 by Laurie Marker-Kraus. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

Grisham, J. 1997. North American Species Survival Plan for cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). International Zoo Yearbook, 35:66-70.

Grisham, J. and L. Killmar. 1997. Species Survival Plan (SSP) surveillance of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in North America. International Zoo Yearbook, 35:71-73.

Gros, P. M. and M. Rejmanek. 1999. Status and habitat preference of Uganda cheetahs: an attempt to predict carnivore occurrence based on vegetation structure. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8:1561-1583.

Hedrick, P. W. 1996. Bottleneck(s) or metapopulation in cheetahs. Conservation Biology, 10(3): 897-899.

Herdman, R. 1972. Captive Cheetah Reproduction. Zoonooz, 45(10): 4-12.

Honacki, J.H., K.E. Kinman, and J.W.Koeppl,  eds. 1982. Mammal Species of the World: a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Lawrence, Association of Systematics Collections.

Howard, J.G., T.L. Roth, A.P. Byers, W.F. Swanson, and D.E. Wildt. 1997. Sensitivity to exogenous gonadotropins for ovulation induction and laparoscopic artificial insemination in the cheetah and the clouded leopard. Biology of Reproduction, 56(4): 1059-1068.

Hunter, L. 1996. The reintroduction of cheetahs into Phinda Resource Reserve, northern Natal, South Africa. In: International Studbook: Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus 1994-1995. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) 2011.Acinonyx jubatus.(Schreber, 1775) Retrieved January 4 2012 from

Johnson, W. and S.O' Brien, 1997. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-H Mitochondrial Genes. J. Molecular Evolution, 44:98-116

Johnson, W.E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W.J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. & O"Brian, S.J., 2006, The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment. Science 311: 73-77.

Jackson, P. 1998. Asiatic Cheetah in Iran. Cat News, 28:2-3.

Jurke, M.H., N.M. Czekala, D.G. Lindburg, and S.E. Millard. 1997. Fecal corticoid metabolite measurement in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Zoo Biology, 16:133-147.

Kelly, M. J. 2000. Lineage loss in Serengeti cheetahs: consequences of high reproductive variance and heritability of fitness on effective population size. Conservation Biology, 15(1): 137-147.

Kelly MJ, Laurenson MK, FitzGibbon CD, Collins DA, Durant SM, Frame GW, Bertram BC, Caro TM. 1998. Demography of the Serengeti cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population: the first 25 years. Journal of Zoology 244(4):473-88.

Kingdon, J. 1977. East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. V. III, Part A (Carnivores). Academic Press, Long. 476 pp.

Krausman PR, Morales SM 2005. Acinonyx jubatus. Mammalian Species 771: 1-6.

Kitchener AC, Breitemoser-Würsten C, Eizirik E, Gentry A, Werdelin L, Wilting A, Wamaguchi N, Abramov A, Christiansen P, Driscoll C, et al. 2017. A revised taxonomy of the Felidae. The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group. Cat News Spec. Issue 11, 80 pages.

Kurtén B. 1969. Pleistocene mammals of Europe . London: U: Weidenfeld and Nicholson

Laurenson, M. K. 1995. Implications of high offspring mortality for cheetah population dynamics. In: Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem. A.R.E. Sinclair and Peter Arcese, editors. Chicago: University of Chicago. 665 pp.

Laurenson, M. K., N. Wielebnowski, and T.M. Caro. 1995. Extrinsic factors and juvenile mortality in cheetahs. Conservation Biology, 9(5):1329-1331.

Lindburg, D.. 1989. When cheetahs are kings. Zoonooz, 62: 3.

Lindburg, D.G., B.S. Durrant, S.E. Millard, and J.E. Oosterhuis. 1993. Fertility assessment of cheetah males with poor quality semen. Zoo Biology, 12:97-103.

Londei, T. 2000. The Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) dewclaw: specialization overlooked. Journal of Zoology, 251: 535-537.

Marnewick K, Hayward MW, Cilliers D, Somers MJ. 2009. Survival of cheetahs relocated from ranchland to fenced protected areas in South Africa. In: Reintroduction of top-order predators (Hayward MW, Somers MJ, editors) (conservation science and practice series, no. 5). p. 282-306.

Marker, L. 1999. 1997/1998 International Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Studbook. Otjiwarongo, Namibia, Cheetah Conservation Fund. Computer disk format.

Marker, L., B. Cristescu, A. Dickman, M. T. Nghikembua, L. K. Boast, T. Morrison, J. Melzheimer, E. Fabiano, G. Mills, B. Wachter, D. W. Macdonald. 2018. Ecology of free-ranging cheetahs. In: Nyhus PJ, Marker L, Boast LK, Schmidt-Küntzel, editors. Cheetahs: biology and conservation. London: Academic Press (Elsevier). p. 107-119.

Marker-Kraus, L. 1995. International Studbook: Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus 1993. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian.

Marker-Kraus, L. 1996. International Studbook: Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus 1994-1995. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian.

Marker-Kraus, L. 1997. "Morphological Abnormalities Reported in Namibian Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). 50th Anniversary of VAN and 2nd African Congress of the WVA: Session IV: Cheetah Symposium.

Marker-Kraus, L. 1998. 1996 International Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Studbook. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian.

Marker-Kraus, L. 1997. History of the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus in zoos 1829-1994. International Zoo Yearbook, 35:27-43.

Marker-Kraus, L. and J. Grisham. 1993. Captive breeding of cheetahs in North American zoos: 1987-1991.Zoo Biology, 12:5-18.

Marker-Kraus, L., S. DeVincent, H. Scherer, P.A. Bassin, L. Munson, and S.L. Quackenbush. 1997. Lymphosarcoma in a Captive Namibian Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). 50th Anniversary of VAN and 2nd African Congress of the WVA: Session IV: Cheetah Symposium.

Menotti-Raymond, M.A., S.J. O'Brien. 1993. . Dating the genetic bottleneck of the African cheetah. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. U.S.A. 90:3172-3176.

McVittie, R. 1979. Changes in the social behaviour of south West African Cheetah. Madoqua, 2(3): 171-184.

Mellon, J. D. 1992. Effects of early rearing experience on subsequent adult sexual behavior using domestic cats (Felis catus) as a model for exotic small felids. Zoo Biology, 11: 17-32.

Meltzer, D. G. A. 1987. Reproduction in the Male Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus jubatus (Schreber 1776). Master of Science Thesis, University of Pretoria. Menotti-Raymond, M., and S. J. O’Brien. 1993. Dating the genetic bottleneck of the African cheetah. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 9: 3172-3176.

Merola, M. 1994. A reassessment of homozygosity and the case for inbreeding depression in the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus: implications for conservation. Conservation Biology, 8(4): 961-971.

Munson, L. 1995. Cheetah diseases: an update. In: International Studbook: Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus 1993. L. Marker-Kraus, studbook keeper. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian.

Munson, L., 1999. Necrotizing leukoencephalopathy in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus): etiologic and epidemiologic investigations. Project proposal presented to the American Zoo and Aquarium Association,

Munson, L. and L. Marker-Kraus. 1997. The impact of capture and captivity on the health of Namibian farmland cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Keynote address, 50th Anniversary of VAN and 2nd African Congress of the WVA: Session IV: Cheetah Symposium. Printed in 1996 International Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Studbook. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian.

Munson, L. and A. de Lahunta, S. B. Citino, R. W. Radcliffe, D. L. Neiffer, R. J. Montali, and I. Stalis. 1999. Leukoenchephalopathy in cheetahs (abstract only). 1999 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Annual Conference: Columbus, Ohio, October 9-14, 1999, p. 69.

Myers, N. 1975. Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus in Africa. IUCN Monograph No. 4. Morges, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 90 pp.

Nowell, K. and P. Jackson, eds. 1996. Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 382 pp.

O’Brien, S. J. 1994. The cheetah’s conservation controversy. Conservation Biology, 8(4): 1153-1155.

O’Brien, S. J., M.E. Roelke, L. Marker, A. Newman, C.A. Winkler, D. Meltzer, L. Colly, J.F. Evermann, M. Bush, D.E. Wildt. 1985. Genetic basis for Ssecies vulnerability in the cheetah. Science, 227: 1428-1434.

O’Brien, S. J., D. E. Wildt, M. Bush, T. M. Caro, C. FitzGibbon, I. Aggundey, and R. E. Leakey. 1987. East African cheetahs: evidence for two population bottlenecks? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 84: 508-511.

O'Brien, S. and W. Johnson 2005. Big cat genomics. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 6:407-290.

Papendick, R.E., L. Munson, T.D. O’Brien, K.H. Johnson, 1997. Systemic AA, Amyloidosis in captive cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus. Veterinary Pathology, 34:549-556.

Poddar-Sarkar, M, R.L. Brahmachary. 1997. Putative semiochemicals in the African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Journal of Lipid Mediators and Cell Signaling, 15: 285-287.

Rangarajan, M. 1998. The Role of administration in extermination: fresh evidence on the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in India.  Miscellaneous Notes, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 95: 328-332.

Russell, A. P. and H. N. Bryant. 2001. Claw retraction and protraction in the Carnivora: the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) as an atypical felid. Journal of Zoology, 254(1): 67-76.

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Setchell, K.D., S.J. Gosselin, M.B. Welsh, J.O. Johnston, W.F. Balistreri, L.W. Kramer, B.L. Dresser, and M.J. Tarr. 1987. Dietary estrogens – a probable use of infertility and liver disease in captive cheetahs. Gastroenterology, 93: 225-233.

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Schumann, M. and B. Schumann. 1996. Handraising of cheetah cubs." In: International Studbook: Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus 1994-1995. L. Marker-Kraus, studbook keeper. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian.

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Van Valkenburgh

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Wielebnowski, N.. 1996. Reassessing the relationship between juvenile mortality and genetic monomorphism in captive cheetahs. Zoo Biology, 15:353-369.

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