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Dwarf Crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Abercrombie C. 1978. Notes on West African crocodilians (Reptilia, Crocodilia). Journal of Herpetology. 12(2):260-262.

Beck C. 1978. Breeding the West African Dwarf Crocodile at Memphis Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook. 18:89-91.

Brinkman D. 1980. The hind limb step cycle of Caiman sclerops and the mechanics of the crocodilian tarsus and metatarsus. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 58(12):2187-2200.

Brochu C. 1997. Morphology, fossils, divergence timing, and the phylogenetic relationships of Gavialis. Systematic Biology. 46(3):479-521.

Brochu C. 2001. Congruence between physiology, phylogenetics and the fossil record on crocodylian historical biogeography. In: Grigg G, Seebacher F, Franklin C, editors. Crocodilian biology and evolution. Chipping Norton (AU): Surrey Beatty and Sons. p. 9-28.

Brochu C. 2003. Phylogenetic approaches toward crocodylian history. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 31:357-397.

Brochu C. 2007. Morphology, relationships, and biogeographical significance of an extinct horned crocodile (Crocodylia, Crocodylidae) from the Quaternary of Madagascar. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society. 150(4):835-863.

Brochu CA, Njau J, Blumenschine RJ, Densmore LD. 2010. A new horned crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene hominid sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. PLoS ONE. 5(2):e9333.

Crocodile Specialist Group. 1996. Osteolaemus tetraspis. The IUCN red list of threatened species [internet]. Version 2018-1; e.T15635A4931429 [species assessed 1996 Aug 01; page accessed 2018 Sep 04]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T15635A4931429.en

Dieter CT. 2000. The Ultimate Guide to Crocodilians in Captivity. Georgetown (TX): Armadillo Publishing Corporation. p. 71.

Dinets V. 2013. Long-distance signaling in crocodylia. Copeia. 3:517-526. 

Dowling HG, Brazaitis P. 1966. Size and growth in captive crocodilians. International Zoo Yearbook. 6(1):265-270.

Eaton MJ. 2004. 2nd Annual Report on the WCS Central African Crocodile Research Program: Congo and Gabon. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY.

Eaton M, Martin C, Thorbjarnarson J, Amato G. 2009. Species-level diversification of African Dwarf Crocodiles (Genus Osteolaemus): a geographic and phylogenetic perspective. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 50(3):496-506.

Eaton M. 2010a. African Dwarf Crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis). In: Manolis C, Stebenson C, editors. Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Darwin: IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. p. 127-132.

Eaton MJ, Meyers GL, Kolokotronis SO, Leslie MS, Martin AP, Amato G. 2010b. Barcoding bushmeat: Molecular identification of Central African and South American harvested vertebrates. Conservation Genetics 11:1389–1404.

Eaton MJ, Link WA. 2011. Estimating age from recapture data: integrating incremental growth measures with ancillary data to infer age-at-length. Ecological Applications. 21:2487–97.

Franke FA, Schmidt F, Borgwardt C, Bernhard D, Bleidorn C, Engelmann WE, Schlegel M. 2013. Genetic differentiation of the African dwarf crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis Cope, 1861 (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) and consequences for European zoos. Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 13(2):255–266.

Frey E, Salisbury S. 2001. The kinematics of aquatic locomotion in Osteolaemus tetraspis Cope. In: Grigg G, Seebacher F, Franklin C, editors. Crocodilian biology and evolution. Chipping Norton (AU): Surrey Beatty and Sons. p. 165-179.

Green R, Braun EL, Armstrong J, Earl D, Nguyen N, Hickey G, Vandewege MW, St. John JA, Capella-Gutierrez S, Castoe TA, et al. 2014. Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs. Science. 346(6215):1254449.

Grigg GC, Kirshner D. 2015. Biology and Evolution of Crocodylians. CSIRO, Clayton South, VIC (AU).

Groombridge B. 1982. The IUCN Amphibia-Reptilia Red Data Book. Part 1. Testudines, Crocodylia, Thynochocephalia. Gland (CH): IUCN.

Guggisberg C. 1972. Crocodiles: their natural history, folklore and conservation. London (GB): Harrisburg Stackpole Books. 195 p.

Hara K, Kikuchi F. 1978. Breeding the West African Dwarf Crocodile at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo. International Zoo Yearbook. 18:84-87.

Hekkala ER, Shirley MH, Amato G, Austin JD, Charter S, Thorbjarnarson JB, Vliet KA, Houck ML, Desalle R, Blum MJ. 2011. An ancient icon reveals new mysteries: mummy DNA resurrects a cryptic species within the Nile crocodile. Molecular ecology. 20(20):4199–4215.

Helfenberger N. 1981. Ein Beitrag zur Fortpflanzungsiologie von Osteolaemus t. tetraspis. Herpetogauna. 11: 9-11.

Inger R. 1948. The systematic status of the crocodile Osteoblepharon osborni. Copeia. 1948(1):15-19.

ITIS. 2015. Osteolaemus tetraspis (Cope, 1861).

Kofron C. 1992. Status and habitats of three African crocodiles in Liberia. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 8(3):265-273.

Kofron C, Steiner C. 1994. Observations on the African Dwarf Crocodile, Osteolaemus tetraspis. Copeia. 1994(2):533-535.

Kpera N. 2003. Notes on crocodiles in Benin. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter. 22(1):3.

Luiselli L, Akani G, Capizzi D. 1999. Is there any interspecific competition between Dwarf Crocodiles (Osteolaemus tetraspis) and Nile Monitors (Varanus niloticus ornatus) in the swamps of Central Africa? A study from south-eastern Nigeria. Journal of Zoology. 247(1):127-131.

Moiser C, Barber A. 1994. The crocodile pools of the Western Division, the Gambia. British Herpetological Society Bulletin. 47:16-22.

Pauwels O, Christy P, Honorez A. 2006. Reptiles and national parks in Gabon, western central Africa. Hamadryad. 30(1&2):181-196.

Pauwels O, Barr B, Sanchez M, Burger M. 2007. Diet records for the dwarf crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis tetraspis in Rabi Oilfields and Loango National Park, southwestern Gabon. Hamadryad. 31(2):258-264.

Ray D, White P, Duong H, Cullen T, Densmore L. 2001. High levels of genetic variability in West African Dwarf Crocodiles Osteolaemus tetraspis tetraspis. In: Grigg G, Seebacher F, Franklin C, editors. Crocodilian biology and evolution. Chipping Norton (AU): Surrey Beatty and Sons. p. 58-63.

Reilly S, Elias J. 1998. Locomotion in Alligator mississippiensis: kinematic effects of speed and posture and their relevance to the sprawling-to-erect paradigm. Journal of Experimental Biology. 201:2559-2574.

Riley J, Huchzermeyer F. 1999. African Dwarf Crocodiles in the Likouala Swamp forests of the Congo basin: habitat, density, and nesting. Copeia. 1999(2):313-320. 

Riley J, Huchzermeyer F. 2000. Diet and lung parasites of swamp forest Dwarf Crocodiles (Osteolaemus tetraspis osborni) in the Northern Congo Republic. Copeia. 2000(2):582-586.[0582:DALPOS]2.0.CO;2

Ross F. 2006. African Dwarf-croc quandary persists. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter. 25(1):19-21.

Schmidt F. 2013. European studbook for the African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus sp.). Zoo Leipzig, Germany.

Schmidt KP. 1911. Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part I. Turtles, crocodiles, lizards, and chameleons. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 39:385-624.

Shirley MH, Oduro W, Beibro HY. 2009. Conservation status of crocodiles in Ghana and Cote-d'Ivoire, West Africa. Oryx. 43(1):136-145.

Shirley MH, Vliet KA, Carr AN, Austin JD. 2014. Rigorous approaches to species delimitation have significant implications for African crocodile systematics and conservation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 281(1776):20132483.

Shirley MH, Villanova VL, Vliet KA, Austin JD. 2015. Genetic barcoding facilitates captive and wild management of three cryptic African crocodile species complexes. Animal Conservation. 18(4):322-330.

 Sims K, Sing J. 1978. Breeding the West African Dwarf Crocodile at Kuala Lumpur Zoo, with observations on nest construction. International Zoo Yearbook. 18(1):83-84.

Smolensky NL, Hurtado LA, Fitzgerald LA. 2015. DNA barcoding of Cameroon samples enhances our knowledge on the distributional limits of putative species of Osteolaemus (African dwarf crocodiles). Conservation Genetics 16:235–240.

Somaweera R, Brien M, Shine R. 2013. The role of predation in shaping crocodilian natural history. Herpetological Monographs. 27:23-51.

Temple-Perkins EA. 1951. The first findings of a live pigmy crocodile in Uganda. Uganda Journal 15: 182.

Thorbjarnarson JB, Eaton MJ. 2003. Regional Report: Congo and Gabon. Crocodile Specialist Group, Bulletin 22:6–8.

Trutnae L, Sommerlad R. 2006. Crocodilians. Their Natural History and Captive Husbandry. Frankfurt (DE): Edition Chimaira. 646 p.

UNEP. 2018. Species+: Osteolaemus tetraspis [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2018 Sep 04].

USFWSa. Undated. ECOS (Environmental Conservation Online System) (online database). Congo dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis osborni). [accessed 2018 Aug 03].

USFWSb. Undated. ECOS (Environmental Conservation Online System) (online database). African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis tetraspis). [accessed 2018 Aug 03].

Villiers A. 1958. Tortues et crocodiles de l'Afrique noir française. Institut Francaise d'Afrique Noire. p. 323-4.

Vliet K, Groves J, Brueggen J, Odum R. 2012. Crocodilian advisory group. North American regional collection plan. 49 p.

Waitkuwait WE. 1986. Contribution a l'etude des crocodiles en Afrique de l'ouest. Nature et Faune. Vol. 1. Abidja (CI).

Waitkuwait W. 1989. Present knowledge on the West African Slender-snouted Crocodile, Crocodylus cataphractus Cuvier 1824 and the West African Dwarf Crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis, Cope 1861. In: Hall P, Bryant R, editors. Crocodiles, their ecology, management and conservation. Gland (CH): IUCN. p. 260-275.

Weldon P, Wheeler J. 2001. The chemistry of crocodilian skin glands. In: Grigg G, Seebacher F, Franklin C, editors. Crocodilian biology and evolution. Chipping Norton (AU): Surrey Beatty and Sons. p. 286-296.

Wild C. 2000. Report on the status of crocodilians in the Cameroon forest zone. 15th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group; 17-20 January 2000; Varadero (CU): IUCN. p. 539-543.

Yang Z, Whyte A, Attygalle A, Weldon P, Eisner T, Meinwald J. 1999. Reptilian chemistry: characterization of a family of dianeackerone-related steroidal esters from a crocodile secretion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 96(22):12251-12256.

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2018. [accessed 2018 Sep 04].

Zoer R. 2012. The bush meat and conservation status of the African Dwarf Crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis. Pretoria (ZA): University of Pretoria. 64 p.

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