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Camels (extant/living species; Camelus spp.): Bibliography

Camels (Camelus spp.)


Animal Info Database. Available online at

Bannikov A. 1976. Wild camels of the Gobi. Wildlife 18:398-403.

Bulliet RW. 1990. The camel and the wheel. New York (NY): Columbia University Press.

Cui, P. R. Ji, F. Ding, D. Qi, H. Gao, H. Meng, J. Uu, S. Hu, H. Zhang, 2007. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus): an evolutionary history of camelidae. BMC Genomics 8:241.

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO): Animal Health Care Manual. 1994. Chapter 7: Camels, llamas and alpacas.

FAO: FAOSTAT database. 2012. FAOSTAT.

FAO: The Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas. 2004. GLiPHA.

Franklin WL. 2011. Family Camelidae. In: Wilson DE & Mittermeier RA (eds). Handbook of Mammals of the World Vol. 2. Hoofed Mammals. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. pp. 206-246.

Gauthier-Pilters H, Dagg A. 1981. The camel: its evolution, ecology, behavior, and relationship to man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gentry A, Clutton-Brock J, Groves CP. 2004. The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives. Journal of Archaeological Science 31:645-651.

Grubb P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, eds. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, 3rd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkings University Press. pp. 637-722.

Hare J. 1997. The wild Bactrian camel - the need for urgent action. Oryx 31(1):45-48.

Hare J. 2004. The wild Bactrian camel, a critically endangered species. Endangered Species Update 21(1):32-35.

Hare J. 2008. Bactrian camel Camelus ferus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.2; e.T63543A12689285 [species assessed 2008 Jun 30; page accessed 2019 Feb 19]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T63543A12689285.en.

Harper D. 2012. Online etymology dictionary. Retrieved 8 Oct 2012 from

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). Usage of 17 specific names bsed on wild species which are predated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 60:81-84.

Ji R, Cui P, Ding F, et al. 2009. Monophyletic origin of domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and its evolutionary relationship with the extant wild camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus). Animal Genetics 40(4):377-382.

Jones CJP, Skidmore JA, Aplin JD. 2008 Placental glycosylation in a cama (camel-llama cross) and its relevance to successful hybridisation. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 49(3):1030-1035.

Kadwell M, Fernandez M, Stanley HF, et al. 2001. Genetic analysis reveals the wild ancestors of the llama and the alpaca. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B - Biological Sciences 268(1484):2575-2584.

Kinne J, Wani NA, Wernery U, Peters J, Knospe C. 2010. Is there a two-humped stage in the embryonic development of the dromedary? Anat Hystiol Embryol 39(5):479-480.

Klingel H. 1990. Camels. In: Parker SP, ed. Grzimek's encyclopedia of mammals, vol. 5. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 85-96.

Kohler-Rollefson I. 1991. Camelus dromedarius. In: Mammalian species, No. 375. American Society of Mammologists. pp. 1-8.

Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema naturae, 10th ed., vol. 1, Holmiae, Salvii.

Marin JC, Zapata B, Gonzalez BA, et al. 2007. Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence. Revista Chilena De Historia Natural 80(2):121-140.

McKenna MC, Bell SK. 1997. Classification of mammals above the species level. New York: Columbia University Press.

Ming L, Yi L, Sa R, Wang ZX, Wang Z, Ji R. 2017. Genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Bactrian camels shown by mitochondrial sequence variations. Animal Genetics. 48(2):217–220. doi:10.1111/age.12511.

Mix H, Reading RP, Blumer ES, Lhagvasuren B. 2002. Status and distribution of wild bactrian camels in Mongolia. In: Reading RP, Enkhbileg D, Galbaatar T, eds. Ecology and conservation of wild bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus ferus). Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia): Mongolian Conservation Coalition and ADMON Printing. pp. 39-48.

Montgelard C, Catzeflis FM, Douzery E. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S rRNA mitochondrial sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14(5):550-559.

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). 2012. Taxonomy Database. Available online at

Peters J, von den Driesch A. 1997. The two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus): new light on its distribution, management and medical treatment in the past. Journal of Zoology, London 242:651–79.

Pigière F, Henrotay D. 2012. Camels in the northern provinces of the Roman Empire. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(5):1531-1539.

Prejevalsky [Przewalski] N. 1879. From Kulja across the Tian Shan to Lob Nur. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington.

Price SA, Binidind-Emonds OR, Gittleman JL. 2005. A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins, and even-toed hoofed mammals (Cetartiodactyla). Biological Review 80:445-473.

Reading RP, Mix H, Lhagvasuren B, Blumer ES. 1999. Status of wild bactrian camels and other large ungulates in south-western Mongolia. Oryx 33(3):247-255.

Schaller GB. 1998. Wildlife of the Tibetan steppe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Stanley HF, Kadwell M, Wheeler JC. 1994. Molecular evolution of the family Camelidae: a mitochondrial DNA study. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 256:1-6.

Tulgat R, Schaller G. 1992. Status and distribution of wild Bactrian camels, Camelus bactrianus ferus. Biological Conservation 62:11-19.

UNEP. 2019a. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Sep 03].

UNEP. 2019b. Species+: Camelus bactrianus [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Sep 03].

Wang Z, Wang X, Bu H. 2002. Status of wild Bactrian camels in China. In: Reading RP, Enkhbileg D, Galbaatar T, eds. Ecology and conservation of wild Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus ferus). Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia): Mongolian Conservation Coalition and ADMON Printing. pp. 25-38.

Wild Camel Protection Foundation. Wild Bactrian Camel. Retrieved from

Wilson RT. 1998. Camels. London: Macmillan Education.

World Resources Institute [WRI]. 2004. Agriculture and food — livestock: camel stocks [EarthTrends Environmental Information]. Retrieved from

Yadamsuren A, Dovchindorj G. 2005. Preliminary results on a population and ecology study of wild bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). Proceedings of the Institute of General and Experimental Biology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences 25:44-49.

Yadamsuren A, Reading RP, Blumer ES, Mix H, Mijiddorj B, Choijin S. 2004. Summary of recent research on wild bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus ferus Przewalski, 1883). In: Yadamsuren A, Ulikpan K, eds. Some studies in the Trans-Altai Gobi Ecosystem. United Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia): Nations Development Project-Global Environment Facility, Conservation of the great Gobi ecosystem and its Umbrella Species. pp. 38-45.

Yagil R. 2006. Reproductive processes in camels. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 61(2):52-55.

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