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Extinct Dire Wolf (Canus dirus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources

Extinct Dire Wolf (Canus dirus)


Anderson, E. 1984. Who's who in the Pleistocene: a mammalian bestiary. In: P. Martin and R. Klein (Eds) Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. University of Tucson Press. pp. 59-60.

Anyonge, W., J. Meyer, A. Baker, P. Alberico, C. Roman 2003. Body mass and feeding behaviour in the extinct Pleistocene dire wolf, Canis dirus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3, Suppl), 30A.

Anyonge, W. and A. Baker 2006. Craniofacial morphology in Canis dirus. Journal of Zoology 26(1):209-212.

Anyonge, W. and C. Roman 2006. New body mass estimates for Canis dirus, the extinct Pleistocene dire wolf. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26(1):209-212

Binder, W.J., E.N. Thompson, B. Van Valkenburgh 2002. Temporal variation in tooth fracture among Rancho La Brea dire wolves. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22:423-428.

Coltrain, J.B. J.M. Harris, T.E. Cerling, J.R. Ehleringer, M-D. Dearing, J. Ward, J. Allen 2004. Rancho La Brea stable isotope biogeochemistry and its implications for the palaeoecology of late Pleistocene, coastal southern California. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 205:199-219. Retrieved from

Duckler, G.L. and Van Valkenburgh, B. 1998. Exploring the health of late Pleistocene mammals: the use of Harris lines. Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology 18, 180–188. Retrieved from

Dundas, R.G. 1999. Quaternary records of the dire wolf, Canis dirus, in North and South America. Boreas, 28(3):375-385.

Ewer, R.F. 1973. The Carnivores. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Fox-Dobbs, K., P.L Koch, and M.T. Clementz 2003. Lunchtime at La Brea: isotopic reconstruction of Smilodon fatalis and Canis dirus dietary patterns through time. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3, Supplement):51A.

Fox-Dobbs, K. J.K.Bump, R.O. Peterson, D.L. Fox, and P.L. Koch 2007. Carnivore-specific stable isotope variables and variation in the foraging ecology of modern and ancient wolf populations: case studies from Isle Royale, Minnesota, and La Brea. Canadian Journal of Zoology 85:458-471.

Harris, J., J.T. Coltrain, T. Cerling, J. Ehleringer 2004. Trophic relationships of Late Pleistocene mammals from Rancho La Brea. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 23 (3, Suppl.) 59A.

Hodnett, J.-P., J.I. Mead, A. Baez 2009. Dire wolf, Canis dirus (Mammalia:Carnivora:Canidae)., from the Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) of east-central Sonora, Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 54(1):74-81.

Hunt, R. 1996. Biogeography of the Order Carnivora, Canidae. J. Gittleman (Ed) In: Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution. Vol. 2 pp. 511-514.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System 2010. Caniformia. Assessed 2006. Retrieved July 22, 2010 from

Kurtén, B. and E. Anderson 1980. Pleistocene Mammals of North America. Columbia University Press. New York.

Lindblad-Toh, K. C.M. Wade, T.S. Mikkelsen, E. Karlsson et al 2005. Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog. Nature 438(8); 803-819.

Merriam, J.C. 1912. The fauna of Rancho La Brea, Part II. Canidae. Memoirs of the University of California 1:217-273.

McKenna, M.C. and S.K. Bell 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York. p. 247.

Prevosti, F.J. and A. Rincon 2007. A new fossil canid assemblage from the Late Pleistocene of northern South America: the canids of the Inciarte asphalt pit (Zulia, Venezuela), fossil record and biogeography. Journal of Paleontology 81(5):1053-1065.

Stock, C., Harris, J.M., 1992. Rancho La Brea: A Record of Pleistocene Life in California. Science Series No. 37. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, CA.

Tedford, R.H., X. Wang and B. Taylor 2009. Phylogenetic systematics of the North American fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History.

Therrien, F. 2005. Mandibular force profiles of extant carnivorans and implications for the feeding behaviour of extinct predators. Journal of Zoology, London 267:249-270.

Turner, A., M. Anton 1997. The Big cats and their fossil relatives: an illustrated guide to their evolution and natural history. Columbia University Press.

Van Valkenburgh, B. and C.B. Ruff 1987. Canine strength and killing behaviour in large carnivores. Journal of Zoology (London). 212:379-397.

Van Valkenburgh, B., M.F. Teaford, A. Walker 1990. Molar microwear and diet in large carnivores: inferences concerning diet in the sabretooth cat, Smilodon fatalis. Journal of Zoology, London 222:319-340.

Van Valkenburgh, B. and F. Hertel, 1993. Tough times at La Brea: tooth breakage in large carnivores of the Late Pleistocene. Science, New Series, 261(5120) 456-459.

Van Valkenburgh, B. 1998. Incidence of tooth breakage among large, predatory mammals. American Naturalist 131:291-302.

Van Valkenburgh, B. T. Sacco 2002. Sexual dimorphism, social behavior, and intrasexual competition in Pleistocene Carnivorans. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology22(1):164-169.

Wang, X., R. Tedford, B. Van Valkenburgh, and R.K. Wayne 2004. Phylogeny, Classification, and Evolutionary Ecology of the Canidae. In: Sillero-Zubiri, C. M. Hoffmann, D. Macdonald (eds), Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Retrieved from

Wozencraft, W.C. 2005. Order Carnivora. In: Wilson, D. and D. Reeder (eds) Mammal species of the world. pp. 532-548. (3rd edition). Johns Hopkins University Press.

Additional Internet Resources

(and where to view fossils in museums)

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