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Gelada (Theropithecus gelada) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Aich H, Moosheilen R, Zimmermann E. 1990. Vocalizations of adult gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada) - acoustic structure and behavioral context. Folia Primatologica. 55(3-4):109-132. DOI: 10.1159/000156508

Beehner J, Gebre B, Gergman T, McCann C. 2008. Population estimate for geladas (Theropithecus gelada) living in and around the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science. 30:149-154.

Bergman TJ. 2012. Speech-like vocalized lip-smacking in geladas. Current Biology. 23(7):R268-R269. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.02.038

Bergman TJ, Beehner JC. 2013. Theropithecus gelada, gelada (gelada baboon). In: Butynski TM, Kingdon J, Kalina J. Mammals of Africa: primates. p. 240-244.

Bininda-Emonds ORP, Cardillo M, Jones KE, MacPhee RDE, Beck RMD, Grenyer R, Price SA, Vos RA, Gittleman JL, Purvis A. 2007. The delayed rise of present-day mammals. Nature 446: 507–512.

Bridges W. 1974. Gathering of animals: an unconventional history of the New York Zoological Society. New York (NY): Harper & Row. p. 518

Chiarelli B. 1962. Comparative morphometric analysis of primate chromosomes. 2. Chromosomes of genera Macaca, Papio, Theropithecus and Cercocebus. Caryologia. 15(2):401-420. DOI: 10.1080/00087114.1962.10796068

Crook J. 1966. Gelada baboon herd structure and movement. A comparative report. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London. 18:237-258.

Crook J, Aldrich-Blake P. 1968. Ecological and behavioral contrasts between sympatric ground dwelling primates in Ethiopia. Folia Primatologica. 8:192-227.

Delson E. 1993. Theropithecus fossils from Africa and India and the taxonomy of the genus. In: Jablonski N, editor. Theropithecus: the rise and fall of a primate genus. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. p. 157-189.

Delson E, Eck G, Leakey M, Jablonski N. 1993. Appendix 1: a partial catalogue of fossil remains of Theropithecus. In: Jablonski N, editor. Theropithecus: the rise and fall of a primate. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. p. 499-525.

Dunbar RIM. 1977. Feeding ecology of gelada baboons: a preliminary report. In: Clutton-Brock TH, editor. Primate Ecology. London (GB): Academic Press. p. 250-273.

Dunbar RIM. 1980. Demographic and life-history variables of a population of gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada). Journal of Animal Ecology. 49(2):485-506. DOI: 10.2307/4259

Dunbar RIM. 1983. Structure of gelada baboon reproductive units. 2. Social relationships between reproductive females. Animal Behaviour. 31(2):556-564. DOI: 10.1016/S0003-3472(83)80079-7

Dunbar RIM. 1984. Reproductive decisions: an economic analysis of gelada baboon social strategies. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press. p. 265.

Dunbar RIM, Bose U. 1991. Adaptations to grass-eating in gelada baboons. Primates. 32:1-7.

Dunbar RIM, Dunbar P. 1974a. The reproductive cycle of the gelada baboon. Animal Behaviour. 22:203-210.

Dunbar RIM, Dunbar P. 1974b. Behavior related to birth in wild gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada). Behaviour. 50(1-2):185-191.

Dunbar RIM, Dunbar P. 1974c. Hybridization between Theropithecus gelada and Papio anubis in the wild. Journal of Human Evolution. 3(3):187-192. DOI: 10.1016/0047-2484(74)90176-6

Dunbar RIM, Dunbar P. 1975. Social dynamics of gelada baboons. In: Kuhn H, Luckett W, Noback C, Schultz A, Starck D, Szalay F, editors. Contributions to primatology. Basel (CH): Karger. p. 157.

Fedigan LM. 1972. Roles and activities of male geladas (Theropithecus gelada). Behaviour. 41:82-90. DOI: 10.1163/156853972x00211

Gibert J, Ribot F, Gibert L, Leakey M, Arribas A, Martinez B. 1995. Presence of the cercopithecid genus Theropithecus in Cueva Victoria (Murcia, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution. 28(5):487-493. DOI: 10.1006/jhev.1995.1036

Gippoliti S. 2008. An overview of Theropithecus taxonomy and distribution. Folia Primatologica. 79(3):135-135.

Gippoliti S, Hunter C. 2008. Theropithecus gelada. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [Internet]. Version 2014.2; e.T21744A9316114 [species assessed 2008 Jun 06; page accessed 2018 Oct 02].

Gippoliti S, Mekonnen A, Burke R, Nguyen N, Fashing PJ. 2019. Theropithecus gelada. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2020.2; e.T21744A17941908 [species assessed 2018 Jun 29; page accessed 2020 Oct 28]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T21744A17941908.en.

Grubb P. 2006. English common names for subspecies and species of African primates. Primate Conservation. 20:65-73.

Gustison ML, le Roux A, Bergman TJ. 2012. Derived vocalizations of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and the evolution of vocal complexity in primates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 367(1597):1847-1859. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0218

Hill W. 1970. Primates: comparative anatomy and taxonomy: Cynopithecinae. Papio, Mandrillus, Theropithecus. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press (GB). p. 680.

Hughes JK, Elton S, O'Regan HJ. 2008. Theropithecus and 'out of Africa' dispersal in the Plio-Pleistocene. Journal of Human Evolution. 54(1):43-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.06.004

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Iwamoto T. 1993. The ecology of Theropithecus gelada. In: Jablonski N, editor. Theropithecus: the rise and fall of a primate genus. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. p. 441-452.

Jablonski N. 1993. Evolution of the masticatory apparatus in Theropithecus. In: Jablonski N, editor. Theropithecus: the rise and fall of a primate genus. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. p. 299-319.

Jolly C. 2013. Genus Theropithecus: gelada. In: Butynski T, Kingdon J, Kalina J, editors. Mammals of Africa: primates. London (GB): Bloomsbury. p. 239.

Jolly CJ, Ucko P. 1969. The riddle of the sphinx-monkey. In: Douglas M, Kaberry P, editors. Man in Africa. London (GB): Tavistock Publications. p. 319-335.

Jolly CJ, Wolley-Baker T, Beyene S, Disotell TR, Phillips-Conroy JE. 1997. Intergeneric hybrid baboons. International Journal of Primatology. 18(4):597-627.

Kawai M. 1979. Ecological and sociological studies of gelada baboons. Tokyo (JP): Kodansha. p. 344.

Kawai M, Ohsawa H, Mori U, Dunbar R. 1983. Social organization of gelada baboons: social units and definitions. Primates. 24:13-24. DOI: 10.1007/BF02381450

Lee L, Nurmi N, Nguyen N, Fashing PJ. 2010. Observations of multiple live births in wild geladas (Theropithecus gelada) at Guassa, Ethiopia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 141 (Suppl 50):153-153.

Leone A, Ferrari PF, Palagi E. 2014. Different yawns, different functions? Testing social hypotheses on spontaneous yawning in Theropithecus gelada. Scientific Reports. 4:1-9. DOI: 10.1038/srep04010

Martin RD. 2000. Origins, diversity and relationships of lemurs. International Journal of Primatology. 21:1021–1049.

Moosheilen R, Sossinka R. 1990. The influence of estrus on the vocalization of female gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada). Ethology. 84(1):35-46.

Page SL, Chiu C-h, Goodman M. 1999. Molecular Phylogeny of Old World Monkeys (Cercopithecidae) as Inferred from g-Globin DNA Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 13(2):348-359.

Perelman P, Johnson WE, Roos C, Seuanez HN, Horvath JE, Moreira MA, Kessing B, Pontius J, Roelke M, Rumpler Y, et al. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of living primates. PLoS Genetics. 7(3):e1001342. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001342

Putman B. 2007. Gelada baboon: North American regional studbook. Bronx (NY): Wildlife Conservation Society. p. 73.

Rook L, Martinez-Navarro B, Howell FC. 2004. Occurrence of Theropithecus sp in the late Villa Franchian of southern Italy and implication for Early Pleistocene "out of Africa" dispersals. Journal of Human Evolution. 47(4):267-277. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.08.001

Roos C, Zinner D, Kubatko L, Schwarz C, Yang M, Meyer D, Nash S, Wing J, Batzer M, Brameier M, et al. 2011. Nuclear versus mitochondrial DNA: evidence for hybridization in colobine monkeys. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 11:77.

Ruppell E. 1835. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der fauna von Abyssinien gehorig. v. 1. Frankfurt am Main: S. Schmerber. p. 148. DOI:

Szalay FS, Delson E. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. New York (NY): Academic Press. p. 580.

Struhsaker T. 1967. Behavior of vervet monkeys and other Cercopithecines. Science. 156(3779):1197-1203.

UNEP. 2018. Species+ [online data base]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2018 Oct 02]. 

von Heuglin T. 1877. Reisen in nord-ost Afrika: schilderungen aus dem gebiete der Beni Amer und Habah Nebft. Braunschwig: G. Westermann. p. 304.

Vram U. 1923. Sul genere Theropythecus. Archivio Zoologico. 10:169-214.

Weigle R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. p. 214.

Wildman DE, Bergman TJ, al-Aghbari A, Sterner KN, Newman TK, Phillips-Conroy JE, Jolly CJ, Disotell TR. 2004. Mitochondrial evidence for the origin of hamadryas baboons. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 32(1):287-296. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2003.12.014

Winney BJ, Hammond RL, Macasero W, Flores B, Boug A, Biquand V, Biquand S, Bruford MW. 2004. Crossing the Red Sea: phylogeography of the hamadryas baboon, Papio hamadryas hamadryas. Molecular Ecology. 13(9):2819-2827. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02288.x

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2018. [accessed 2018 Oct 02].

Zinner D, Wertheimer J, Liedigk R, Groeneveld LF, Roos C. 2013. Baboon phylogeny as inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 150(1):133-140. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22185

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