Skip to Main Content
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance logo
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library logo

Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources

Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus)


Acharjyo, L.N., S.K. Kar, and S.K. Patnaik. 1996. Role of Nandankanan Biological Park, Orissa, in conservation of the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). Tiger Paper, 23(3): 5-8.

Acharjyo, L.N., L.A.K. Singh, and S.K. Pattanaik. 1990. Age at sexual maturity of gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Reptilia: Crocodilia), Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 87(3):458-459.

Ahmad, A. 1988. The crocodiles of Pakistan - a dwindling resource. Tiger Paper, 16(3): 18-20.

Bellairs, A. 1969. The Life of Reptiles, Volume I. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Bolton, M. 1989. The management of crocodiles in captivity. FAO Conservation Guide 22, pp. 12-21. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.

Boyer, D.M. 2001. The life and times of a toothsome giant. ZooNooz, 74(3):18-21.

Brochu, C.A. 2003. Phylogenetic approaches toward crocodilian history. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 31: 357-397. <>, visited 10/22/2003.

Bustard, H.R. 1980a. Maternal care in the gharial, Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin). British Journal of Herpetology, 6(2): 63-64.

Bustard, H.R. 1980b. Extinction of the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) in Bhutan. British Journal of Herpetology, 6(2): 68.

Bustard, H.R. 1980c Captive breeding of crocodiles. In: S. Townson, ed. The Care and Breeding of Captive Reptiles. London: The British Herpetological Society:

Bustard, H.R. and L.A.K. Singh. 1983. Movement of wild gharial, Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin) in the River Mahanadi, Orissa (India). 6(8): 287-291.

Choudhury, A. 1998. Status of the gharial Gavialis gangeticus in the main Brahmaputra River. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 95(1): 118-120.

Choudhury, B.C., L.A.K. Singh, R.J. Rao, D.S. Basu, R.K. Sharma, et al. 2007. Gavialis gangeticus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. Retrieved May 30 2011 from:

Chowfin, S.M. and A. Leslie. 2014. A multi-method approach for the inventory of the adult population of a critically endangered crocodilian, the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) at Dhikala, Corbett Tiger Reserve incorporating direct counts and trail cameras. International
Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 6(2): 148–158. doi:10.5897/IJBC2013.0564.

Dhungel, S.K. Reintroduction of gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) in Nepal. 1987. Tiger Paper, 14(4): 11-15.

Faizuddin, M. 1985. Distribution, abundance, and conservation of gharials in Bangladesh. Tiger Paper, 12(3): 22-23.

Gatesy, J., and G. D. Amato. 1992. Sequence similarity of 12S ribosomal segment of mitochondrial DNAs of gharial and false gharial. Copeia, 1992(1): 241-243.

Grenard, S. 1991. Handbook of Alligators and Crocodiles. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company.

Guggisberg, C.A.W. 1972. Crocodiles: Their Natural History , Folklore, and Conservation. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books.

Hecht, M.K., and B. Malone. 1972. On the early history of the gavialid crocodilians. Herpetologica, 28(3):281-284.

Hua, S. and S. Jouve 2004. A primitive marine gavialoid from the Paleocene of Morocco. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(2):341-350.

Hussain, S.A. 1999. Reproductive success, hatchling survival and rate of increase of gharial Gavialis gangeticus in National Chambal Sanctuary, India. Biological Conservation, 87: 261-268.

Juengst, M. and P. Ahern. 2002. A gharial garden. ZooNooz, 75(9):28-30.

King, F.W., and R.L. Burke, eds. 1989. Crocodilian, Tuatara, and Turtle Species of the World. A taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Washington, D.C.: Association of Systematics Collections.

Lang, J, Chowfin, S. & Ross, J.P. 2019a. Gavialis gangeticus. The IUCN red list of threatened species; e.T8966A3148543 [accessed 11 Jun 2019].

Lang, Chowfin and Ross. 2019b. Gavialis gangeticus (errata version published in 2019). The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019.2; e.T8966A149227430 [species assessed 2017 Dec 30; page accessed 2019 Jul 30]. doi:

Martin, B.G.H., and A. Bellairs. 1977. The narial excrescence and pterygoid bulla of the gharial, Gavialis gangeticus (Crocodilia). Journal of Zoology, 182:541-558.

Maskey, T.M., H.F. Percival, and C.L. Abercrombie. 1995. Gharial habitat use in Nepal. Journal of Herpetology, 29(3): 463-464.

Nawab, A., Basu, D.J., Yadav, S.K., Gautam, P. (2013). Impact of Mass Mortility of Gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin, 1789) on its Conservation in the Chambal River in Rajasthan. In: Sharma, B., Kulshreshtha, S., Rahmani, A. (eds) Faunal Heritage of Rajasthan, India. Springer, Cham.

Neill, W.T.  1971. The Last of the Ruling Reptiles: Alligators, Crocodiles, and Their Kin. New York: Columbia University Press.

Nepali Times. 2019. Gharial found breeding in Nepal after 37 years. Nepali Times [published 2019 Nov 19; accessed 30 Nov 30].

Rao, R.J. 1995. Population and habitat viability assessment for gharial: Briefing book.  Apple Valley, MN: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group.

Rao, R.J., and L.A.K. Singh. 1993. Communal nesting by gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin) (Reptilia: Crocodilia) in National Chambal Sanctuary. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 90(1): 17-22.

Rao, R.J. and L.A.K. Sing. 1994. Status and conservation of the gharial in India. In: Crocodiles. Proceeding of the 12th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. VOl. 1. pp.84-97.

Ross, C.A. ed. 1989. Crocodiles and Alligators. New York: Facts on File.

Ross, J.P, ed. 1998. Status survey and conservation action plan: Crocodiles. Second edition.  <>.

IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. Visited October 22, 2003. NOTE: updated regularly; web format has more recent information than printed version.

Singh, L.A.K. 1991. Overviews: Distribution of Gavialis gangeticus. Hamadryad, 16(1,2):39-46.

Singh, L.A.K., and R.J. Rao. 1990. Territorial behavior of male gharial Gavialis gangeticus in the National Chambal Sanctuary, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 87(1):149-151.

St. John, J., E.L. Braun, S.R. Isberg, L.G. Miles, A.Y. Chong et a. 2012. Sequencing three crocodilian genomes to illuminate the eveolution of archosaurs and amniotes. Genome Biology 13:415 doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415

Thorbjarnarson, J.B. 1990. Notes on the feeding behavior of the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) under semi-natural conditions. Journal of Herpetology, 24(1): 99-100.

UNEP. 2019. Species+: Gavialis gangeticus [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Jul 30]. 

Whitaker, R. 1987. The management of crocodilians in India. In: G.J.W. Webb, S.C. Manolis, and P.J. Whitehead. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators, p. 63-72. Chipping Norton, NSW, Australia: Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd.

Whitaker, R. 1975. Status and conservation of the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). Herpetological Review. 6(1): 1-3.

Whitaker R. 2007. The gharial: going extinct again. Iguana 14(1):25-33. Downloaded May 30 2012 from:

Whitaker, R., and D. Basu. 1982. The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus): a review. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 79(3):531-548.

Whitaker, R.E., and N. Whitaker. 2003. Gharials. In: M. Hutchins, J.B. Murphy and N. Schlager eds. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Second Edition. Volume 6. Reptiles. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group.

Additional Internet Resources


SDZWA Library Links