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Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources

Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)


Arent L. 2007. Raptors in captivity: guidelines for care and management. Washington: Hancock House Publishers. 301 pp.

Avery D, Watson RT. 2009. Regulation of lead-based ammunition around the world. In: Watson RT, Fuller M, Pokras M, Hunt WG (Eds.). Ingestion of spent lead ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Peregrine Fund, Boise Idaho. Retrieved from:

Baicich PJ, Harrison CJO. 1997. A guide to the nests, eggs, and nestlings of North American birds. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Bedrosian B, Craighead D, Rogers T. 2008. Record mass for North American golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis). Journal of Raptor Research 42(2):156-157. Retrieved from:

Bedrosian B, Craighead D. 2010. Blood lead levels of bald and golden eagles sampled during and after hunting seasons in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem. In: Watson RT, Fuller M, Pokras M, Hunt WG (Eds.). Ingestion of spent lead ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Peregrine Fund, Boise Idaho. Retrieved from:

Beecham JJ, Kochert MN. 1975. Breeding biology of the golden eagle in southwestern Idaho. Wilson Bulletin 87:506-13.

Bell C. (Ed.) 2001. Eagles. In: Encyclopedia of the world's zoos. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.

Bergo G. 1987. Territorial behaviour of golden eagles in western Norway. British Birds 80:361-76.

Birds of North America Online 2011. Golden eagle: Aquila chrysaetos. Cornell Lab of Ornithology and the American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved from:

BirdLife International. 2016. Aquila chrysaetos. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.1; e.T22696060A93541662 [species assessed 2016 Oct 01; page accessed 2018 Nov 27]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22696060A93541662.en.

Bittner D, Oakley J. 1998. Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) population of San Diego County, California. Raptor Research Foundation Annual Meeting, 3-7 November 1998. Ogden, Utah.

Bosch R, Real J, Tinto A, Zozaya EL. 2007. An adult male Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) eaten by a subadult golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Journal of Raptor Research 41(4):338-338.

Brown LH, Amadon D. 1968. Eagles, hawks and falcons of the world. 2 vols. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Clark WS, Wheeler BK. 1987. A field guide to hawks in North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Collopy MW. 1983. Foraging behavior and success of golden eagles. The Auk 100(3):747-749.

Collopy MW. 1984. Parental care and feeding ecology of golden eagle nestlings. The Auk 101(4):753-760.

Collopy MW, Edwards TC Jr. 1989. Territory size, activity budget, and role of undulating flight in nesting golden eagles. Journal of Field Ornithologists 60:43-51.

Coonan TJ, Schwemm CA, Roemer GW, Garcelon DK, Munson L. 2005. Decline of an island fox subspecies to near extinction. The Southwestern Naturalist 50(1):32-41.

Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2011. Typical Voice. Retrieved from:

Craig TH, Connelly JW, Craig EH, Parker TL. 1990. Lead concentrations in golden and bald eagles. Wilson Bulletin 102:130-133.

Delaney J. 2011. Golden eagle hunters of Mongolia. Time Photo Essay. Downloaded 2011 Feb 17. Retrieved from:,29307,1878468_1842281,00.html

Eaton MA, et al. 2007. Status of golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in Britain in 2003. Bird Study 54(2):212-220.

Edwards TC Jr., Kochert MN. 1986. Use of body weight and length of footpad as predictors of sex in golden eagles. Journal of Field Ornithology 57:317-319.

Ellis D H. 1979. Development of behavior in the golden eagle. Wildlife Monographs 70:1-94.

Emslie SD, Czaplewski NJ. 1999. Two new fossil eagles from the late Pliocene (late Blancan) of Florida and Arizona and their biogeographic implications. In: Olson SL (Ed.). Avian paleontology at the close of the 20th Century: proceedings of the fourth international meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 89: 185-19.

Ericson P, et al. 2006. Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters 2: 543-547.

Ernst CH, Lovich JE. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 563

Gaff P, Boles W. 2010. A new eagle (Aves: Accipitridae) from the Mid Miocene Bullock Creek fauna of northern Australia. In: Boles WE, Worthy TH (Eds.). Proceedings of the VII international meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution. Retrieved from:

Gale N. 1971. Tuberculosis. In: David JW, Anderson RC, Karstad L, Trainer DO (Eds.). Infectious and parasitic diseases of wild birds. Ames: Iowa State University Press. pp. 89-95.

Garcelon DK, Bogue G. 1977. Raptor care and rehabilitation. Walnut Creek: Night Owl Press. 143pp.

Good RE, Nielson RM, Sawyer H, McDonald LL. 2007. A population estimate for golden eagles in the western United States. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(2):395-402.

Goodwin GA 1990. Golden eagle predation on pronghorn antelope. The Auk 94(1):789-790.

Gordon S. 1968. Courtship of the golden eagle. Birds 2:144-145.

Hackett S et al. 2008. A phylogenetic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320(5884):1763-1767.

Harmata AR, Restani M. 1995. Environmental contaminants and cholinesterase in blood of vernal migrant bald and golden eagles in Montana. Intermountain Journal of Science 1:1-15.

Harshman J. 2008. Accipitriformes. Tree of Life Project. Retrieved from:

Hill HM. 1948. Raptorial hosts of Protocalliphora. Condor 50:131.

Hunt G. 2002. Golden eagles in a perilous landscape: predicting the effects of mitigation for wind turbine blade-strike mortality. Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California, Santa Cruz. Retrieved from:

Hunt G, et al. 2009. Bullet fragments in deer remains: Implication for lead exposure in scavengers. Ingestion of spent lead ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Peregrine Fund, Boise Idaho. Retrieved from:

ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) database [Internet]. TSN 175407. [accessed 2018 Sep 14].

Jollie M. 1947. Plumage changes in the golden eagle. Auk 64:549-576.

Johnsgard P. 1990. Hawks, eagles, and falcons of North America: biology and natural history. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Kenntner N, Crettenand Y, Funfstuck HJ, Janovsky M, Tataruch F. 2007. Lead poisoning and heavy metal exposure of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the European Alps. Journal of Ornithology 148:173-177.

Knight RL, Marr NV. 1983. New distributional records of ticks (Ornithodoros concanensis and O. kelleyi) in Washington. Northwest Science 57:310-311.

Kochert MN, et al. 2002. Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). In: Poole A (Ed.). The birds of North America online. Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved from:

Kramer JL, Redig RT. 1997. Sixteen years of lead poisoning in eagles, 1980-95: an epizootiologic view. Journal of Raptor Research 31:327-332.

Lerner HRL, Mindell DP. 2005. Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37:327-346. Retrieved online from:

Livezey BC, Zusi RL. 2007. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149:1-95.

Matchett MR, O'Gara BW. 1991. Golden eagles and the livestock industry: an emotionally charged issue. Western Wildlands 17(1):18-24.

Mason JR. 2000. Golden eagle attacks and kills adult male coyote. Journal of Raptor Research 34:244-245.

McIntyre CL, Douglas DC, Collopy MW. 2008. Movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from interior Alaska during their first year of independence. The Auk 125(1):214-224.

McFadzen ME, et al. 1996. Northern range extension for Haematosiphon inodorus (Dugès) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Pan-Pacific Entomology 72:41-42.

Mikaelian IR, et al. 1998. Metastatic cholangiocellular carcinoma and renal adenocarcinoma in a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Avian Pathology 27(3):321-325. Retrieved from:

Millar JG. 2002. Protection of eagles and the bald and golden eagle protection act. Journal of Raptor Research 36:29-31.

Moreno-Rueda GM, et al. 2009. The coexistence of the eagles Aquila chrysaetos and Hieraaetus fasciatus increases with low human population density, intermediate temperature, and high prey diversity. Annuals Zoology Fennici 46:283-290. Retrieved from:

Mosher JA. 1976. Raptor energetics: a review. Raptor Research 10:97-107.

Nemeth ND, et al. 2006. Natural and experimental west nile virus infection in five raptor species. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(1):1-13.

Norberg HI, et al. 2006. Predation by golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos on semi-domesticated reindeer Rangifer tarandus calves in northeastern Finnish Lapland. Wildlife Biology 12(4):393-402.

Olendorff RR. 1976. The food habits of North American Golden Eagles. American Midland Naturalist 95:231-236.

Palmer RS. 1988. Golden eagle: Aquila chrysaetos. In: Palmer RS (Ed.). Handbook of North American birds. Volume 5. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 180-231.

Pattee OH, Bloom PH, Scott JM, Smith MR. 1990. Lead hazards within the range of the California condor. Condor 92:931-937.

Petersen MR, Weir DN, Dick MH. 1991. Birds of the Kilbuck and Ahklun Mountain Region, Alaska. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. N. American Fauna 76.

Phillips RL, McEneaney TP, Beske AE. 1984. Breeding densities of golden eagles in Wyoming. Wildlife Society Bulletin 12:269-73.

Redig PT. 1993. Medical management of birds of prey. Raptor Center, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Roemer GW, Wayne RK. 2003. Conservation in conflict: the tale of two endangered species. Conservation Biology 17:1251-1260.

Roemer GW, et al. 2001. Feral pigs facilitate hyperpredation by golden eagles and indirectly cause the decline of the island fox. Animal Conservation 4: 307-318.

Roemer GW, Donlan CJ, Courchamp F. 2002. Golden eagles, feral pigs and island carnivores: how exotic species turn native predators into prey. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99: 791-796.

Roemer GW, Fuller TK, List R, Wayne RK. 2008. Urocyon littoralis. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. Retrieved on 2011 Feb 16 from

Sagan C. 1985. Cosmos. Random House, Inc. pp. 244

Schulz TA. 1990. New and unusual ectoparasites on raptors. In: Ludwig DR (Ed.). Wildlife rehabilitation, Vol. 8 Edina, MN: Burgess Printing Co. pp. 205-213.

Shrubsole-Cockwill AC, et al. 2010. Avian pox infection with secondary Candida albicans encephalities in a juvenile golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. Retrieved 2010 Dec 22 from

Sibley CG, Monroe BL Jr. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Snyder N, Snyder H. 1991. Birds of prey: natural history and conservation of North American raptors. Minnesota: Voyageur Press.

Sorensen OJ, Totsas M, Solstad T, Rigg R. 2008. Predation by a golden eagle on a brown bear cub. Ursus 19(2):190-193.

Spofford WR. 1971. The golden eagle rediscovered. Conservationist 26(1):6-8.

Stauber E, Finch N, Talcott PA, Gay JM. 2010. Lead poisoning of Bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden (Aquila chrysaetos) eagles in the U.S. Pacific Northwest region—an 18 year retrospective study: 1991-2008. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 24(4):279-287.

Stock C. 1992. Rancho La Brea: A record of Pleistocene life in California. 7th ed. Revised by J.M. Harris. Science.

Tesky JL. 1994. Aquila chrysaetos. In: Fire Effects Information System (Online). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Retrieved from:

Thiollay JM. 1994. Family Accipitridae (hawks and eagles). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J (Eds.). Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 2. pp. 52-198.

UNEP. 2018. Species+: Aquila chrysaetos [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2018 Nov 27].

U. S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1940. Bald Eagle Protection Act [16 U.S.C. 668-668c]. Ammeded serval times subsequently. Retrieved from:

U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 2017. Birds of conservation concern. Retrieved 2018 Dec 11 from: 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 2011. National Eagle Repository. Retrieved 2011 Feb from:

Walker DG. 1983. Golden eagle killing mobbing carrion crows. British Birds 76:312.

Watson J. 1997. The golden eagle. London: Academic Press.

Watson J. 2010. Mortality. In: The golden eagle (second edition). New Haven (CT): Yale University Press. p. 291–307.

Wayland M, Bollinger T. 1999. Lead exposure and poisoning in bald eagles and golden eagles in the Canadian prairie provinces. Environmental Pollution 194:341-350.

Whitfield DP, Fielding AH, Mcleod DRA, Haworth PF. 2004. Modelling the effects of persecution on the population dynamics of golden eagles in Scotland. Biological Conservation. 119(3):319–333. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2003.11.015.

Zettergreen B. 2006. Golden eagle attacks and kills yearling mountain goat. Wildlife Afield 3(1):27-28.

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