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Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Aars, J., N. J. Lunn and A. E. Derocher (eds) 2006. Polar Bears, Proceedings of the 14th working meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group. 2024 June 2005, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U. K.: IUCN.

Alaska Department of Fish & Game. 1996. Polar bear life history and habitat requirement: arctic and western regions. In: Alaska Habitat Management Guide: Life Histories and Habitat Requirements of Fish and Wildlife. Juneau: State of Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Habitat.

Agnarsson, I., M. Kuntner, L. May-Collado 2010. Dogs, cats, and kin: A molecular species-level phylogeny of Carnivora. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54:726-745.

Ames, A. 1993. The behaviour of captive polar bears. UFAW Animal Welfare Research Report 5: 1-67

Armstrup, S. C., and C. L. Gardner. 1994. Polar bear maternity denning in the Beaufort Sea. Journal of Wildlife Management, 58(1):1-10.

Amstrup, S. C., G. Durner, I. Stirling, N. Lunn, F. Messier 2000. Movements and distribution of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 948-66.

Atkinson, S. N. and M. A. Ramsay 1995. The effects of prolonged fasting of the body composition and reproductive success of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Functional Ecology 9:559-567.

Amstrup, S. C. 2003. Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus. In: G. Feldhamer, B. Thompson, J. Chapman (eds.) Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore and London.

Born, E. W., A. Renzoni, and R. Dietz. 1991. Total mercury in hair of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Greenland and Svalbard. Polar Research, 9(2) :113-120.

Born, E. W., and S. A. Henriksen.1990. Prevalence of Trichinella sp. in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from northeastern Greenland. Polar Research, 8(2) :313-316.

Brown, G. 1993. The Great Bear Almanac. N. Y.  Lyons & Burford.

Clubb, R. and S. Vickery 2006. Locomotory stereotypies in carnivores: does pacing stem from hunting, ranging or frustrated escape? In: Stereotypic Animal Behavior: Fundamentals and Applications to Welfare. CAB International, Oxfordshire UK and Cambridge MA, USA. pp. 58-85.

Cronin, M. A., S. C. Armstrup, G. W. Garner, and E. R. Vyse. 1991. Interspecific and intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in North American bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69(12):2985-2992.

Cushing, B., N. Cushing, C. Jonkel 1988. Polar bear responses to the underwater vocalizations of ringed seals. Polar Biology 1988:123-124.

Derocher, A. E. 2010. Personal communication.

DeMaster, D. P., and I. Stirling. 1981. Ursus maritimus. Mammalian Species, (145):1- 7.

Derocher, A. E., and I. Stirling. 1990. Observations of aggregating behaviour in adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68(7):1390-1394.

Derocher, A. E., Nelson, R., I. Stirling, M. Ramsay 1990. Effects of fasting and feeding on serum urea and serum creatinine levels in polar bears. Marine Mammal Science 6:196-203.

Derocher, A. E., I. Stirling, and D. Andriashek. 1992. Pregnancy rates and serum progesterone levels of polar bears in Western Hudson Bay. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70(3):561-566.

Derocher, A. E., and I. Stirling. 1992. The population dynamics of polar bears in western Hudson Bay. In: D. R. McCullough and R. H. Barrett, eds. Wildlife 2001: Populations, p.1150-1159. London: Elsevier Applied Science, Ltd.

Derocher, A. E., D. Andriashek, and  J.P. Y. Arnould. 1993. Aspects of milk composition and lactation in polar bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 71(3):561-567.

Derocher, A. E., D. Andriashek, and I. Stirling. 1993. Terrestrial foraging by polar bears during the ice-free period in western Hudson Bay. Arctic, 46(3):251-254.

Derocher, A. E., and I.Stirling. 1994. Age-specific reproductive performance of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) Journal of Zoology, 234(4):527-536.

Derocher, A. E., N. Lunn, I. Stirling 2004. Polar bears in a warming climate. Integrative and Comparative Biology 44:163-176.

Derocher, A. M. Anderson,Øystein Whg 2005. Sexual dimorphism of polar bears. Journal of Mammalogy 86(5):895-901.

Dowsley, M. 2007. Inuit perspectives on polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and climate change in Baffin Bay, Nunavut, Canada [PDF]. Research and Practice in Social Sciences 2(2):53-74.

Durner, G. M., S. C. Amstrup, and K. J. Ambrosius. 2006. Polar bear maternal den habitat in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Arctic 59(1): 31-36 (March 2006).

Durner G. M., J. P. Whiteman, H. J. Harlow, S. C. Amstrup, E. V. Regehr, M. Ben-David 2011. Consequences of long-distance swimming and travel over deep-water pack ice for a female polar bear during a year of extreme sea ice retreat.

 Farley, S.D., and C. T. Robbins. 1994. Development of two methods to estimate body composition of bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 72(2):220-226.

Ferguson, S., M. Taylor, A. Rosing-Asvid, E. Born, F. Messier 2000. Relationships between denning of polar bears and conditions of sea ice. Journal of Mammalogy 81(4):1118-1127.

Folk, G. E., A. Larson, and M. Folk 1976. Physiology of hibernating bears [PDF] In: Pelton, M., J. Lentfer, G.E. Folk (Eds). Bears - their biology and management. IUCN Publ. New Series 40. A Selection of Papers from the Third International Conference on Bear Research and Management, New York and Moscow, June 1974.

Folk, G. E., J. Hunt, M. Folk. 1980. Further evidence for hibernation of bears. International Conference for Bear Research and Management. 4: 43-47.

Forthman, D. L. et al. 1992. Effects of feeding enrichment on behavior of three species of captive bears. Zoo Biology, 11 (3):187-195.

Garner, G. W. et al. 1994. Habitat considerations for polar bears in the North Pacific rim. In: Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, 59; Conference on International partnerships for fish and wildlife, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, March 18-23, 1994. 617p. Washington, DC: Wildlife Management Institute.

Ginsburg, L. 1961. Plantigrady and digitigrady in the fissiped carnivorans [PDF]. Mammalia 25(1)1-21. 1961 Translated by M. Carrano, U. of Chicago 1994.
Gittleman, J. L. 1993. Carnivore Life Histories: a re-analysis in the light of new models. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, No. 65. p. 65-86.

Gittleman, J. L., (ed.) 1989  Carnivore behavior, ecology and evolution. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Harington, C. R. 1963. Polar bear study - Southampton Island, Northwest Territories, 1963. Canadian Wildlife Service Report pp. 1-57.

____________. 1968. Denning habits of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phippus). Canadian Wildlife Service. Report Series - Number 5.

Infólfsson, Ó. and Ø. Wiig 2008. Late Pleistocene fossil find in Svalbard: the oldest remains of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1944) ever discovered. Polar Research 28(3):455-462.

IUCN Redlist of Endangered Species 2009. Polar Bears.

IUCN 2009. Polar Bears. Press release of 15th meeting of PBSC in Copenhagen, Denmark. June 20-July 3.

IUCN 2016. Polar Bears. Proceeds of 18th working meeting of the IUCN/SSC  Polar Bear Specialist Group. Anchorage, Alaska. June 7-11. Compiled and edited by Durner G., Laidre K. and York G.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) 2010. Uploaded Feb. 2010.

Jenness, R., W. Erickson, J. Craighead. 1972. Some comparative aspects of milk from four species of bears. Journal of Mammalogy 53:34-47.

Jonkel, C. G. Kolenosky, R. Robertson, R. Russell 1972. Further notes on polar bear denning habits. In: Herrero, S. (Ed.) Bears: Their Biology and Management. International Union for the Conservation of Nature. New Series No. 23:142-158.

Kohm, A. 1991. Vitamin AD3E-supplement revitalized breeding of polar bears in Karlsruhe. Zoologische Garten 61(1):21-23.  In German with English summary.

Krause, J., T. Unger, A. Nocon, A-S. Malaspinas, S-O Kolokotronis, M. Stiller et al 2008. Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8:220

Kurt, F. 1990. Large Bears In: Grizimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals Vol. 3. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. pp. 480-492

Kurtén, B. 1995. The Cave Bear Story. Columbia University Press. pp. 143-144.

Lang, J.S. 1992. White bears, black gold. Defenders 67(1) :10-21.

Latinen, K. 1987. Longevity and fertility of the polar bear, Ursus maritimus Phipps, in captivity. Zoologische Garten, 57(22-3) : 197-199.

Law, G. 1993.  ABWAK conference proceedings. Part 1: behavioural enrichment. Ratel, 20(4): 123-131.

Lennox, A., R. A. Goodship, 2008 Polar bears (Ursus maritimus), the most evolutionary advanced hibernators, avoid significant bone los during hibernation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A.: Molecular & Integrative Physiology,149(2): 203-208

Lentfer, J.  1982. Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus). In: J.A. Chapman, and G.A. Feldhamer eds. Wild mammals of North America, pp 557-566. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Lindqvist, Charlotte, Stephan C. Schuster, Yazhou Sun, Sandra L. Talbot, Ji Qi, Aakrosh Ratan, Lynn P. Tomsho, Lindsay Kasson, Eve Zeyl, Jon Aars, Webb Miller, Ólafur Ingólfsson, Lutz Bachmann, and Øystein Wiig. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 107:5053. PNAS published online before print March 1, 2010. 

Malyev, A.V. et al. 1991.  Reproduction and sexual behavior of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps) in the Kazan Zoobotanical Garden. Appendix: breeding of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the zoos of the Soviet Union. In: Occasional Papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (No. 7) 1991: 89.

Matthews, D. 1991. Don't mess with mom. Wildlife Conservation, March/April:40-45.

McGee-Lawrence, M., H. Carey, S. Donahue 2008. Mammalian hibernation as a model of disuse osteoporosis: the effects of physical inactivity on bone metabolism, structure, and strength. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 295:1999-2014.

McKenna, M., S. Bell 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York. pp. 250-251.

Messier, F., M. K. Taylor, and M. A. Ramsay. 1994. Denning ecology of polar bears in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Journal of Mammalogy, 75(2): 420-430.

Messier, F., M. K. Taylor, and M. A. Ramsay. 1992. Seasonal activity patterns of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic as revealed by Satellite Telemetry. Journal of Zoology, 226(2):219-229.

Molnar, P., A. Derocher, G. Thiemann, M. Lewis 2010. Predicting survival, reproduction and abundance of polar bears under climate change. Biological Conservation 143(7)1612-1622

Morris, P. J. et al. 1989. Diagnosis and treatment of systemic blastomycosis in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus) with itraconazole. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 20(3) :336-345.

Nachtigall, P., A. Supin, M. Amundin, B. Roken, T. Moller, T. A. Mooney, K. Taylor, M. Yuen. 2007. Polar bear Ursus maritimus hearing measured with auditory evoked potentials [PDF]. Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 1116-1122.

Nelson, R. A. 1987. Black bears and polar bears - Still metabolic marvels. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 62:85--853.

Nelson, R. A., G. E. Folk, E. Pfeiffer, J. Craighead, C. Jonkel, D. Steiger 1980. Behavior, biochemistry, and hibernation in black, grizzly, and polar bears [PDF]. Bears: Their Biology and Management, Vol 5, A Selection of Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Bear Research and Management, Madison, Wisconsin. U. S. A.

Nelson, R. A., T.D. Beck, D. Steiger 1984. Ratio of serum urea to serum creatinine in wild black bears. Science 226:841-842.

Nowak, R. M. Walker's Mammals of the World Vol.II, 5th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp 1092-1094.

O'Brien, S. J. 2003. Tears of the Cheetah and Other Tales from the Genetic Frontier. St. Martin's Press, New York. pp. 140-143

Onorato, D. P., E. C. Hellgren, R.A. Van Den Bussche, J.R. Skiles. 2004. Paternity and relatedness of American black bears recolonizing a desert montane island. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 92:1201-1210.

Ovsyanikov, N. 1992. Ursus ubiquitous. BBC Wildlife, 10(12) : 18- 16.

Ovsyanikov, N. 1996. Polar Bears: Living with the White Bear. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, Inc. 144 pp.

Owen, M. 2009. Loud and Clear: Noise Disturbance and the effect on polar bears. in: Zoonooz, Feb 2007. San Diego Zoological Society. pp 20-23.

Pond, C. M.,  C. A Mattacks,  R. H. Colby,  M. A. Ramsay. 1992. The anatomy, chemical composition, and metabolism of adipose tissue in wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus).Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70(2):326- 341.

Poulsen, E.M. B. 1992. Polar bear enrichment at the Calgary Zoo. Shape of Enrichment, 1(2): 10.

Prestrud, P., and I. Stirling. 1994. The international polar bear agreement and the current status of polar bear conservation. Aquatic Mammals, 20(3):113-124.

Prestrud, P., J. Krogsrud, I. Gjertz. 1992. The occurrence of rabies in the Svalbard Islands of Norway. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 28(1):57- 63.

Ramsay, M. A., and I. Stirling. 1990. Fidelity of female polar bears to winter-den sites. Journal of Mammalogy, 71(2):233-236.

Ramsay, MA, I. Stirling. 1988. Reproductive biology and ecology of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Zoology, 214(4) : 601-634.

Ramsay, MA, I. Stirling. 1986. On the mating system of polar bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:2142-2151.

Regehr, E., N. Lunn, S. Amstrup, I. Stirling 2007. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in Western Hudson Bay. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(8):2673-2683.

Rosing, N. 2006. The World of the Polar Bear. Firefly Books (U.S.) Inc. Buffalo, NY.

St Aubin, D. J. 1990. Physiologic and toxic effects on polar bears. In: R. Geraci, and D. J. St. Aubin, eds. Sea Mammals and Oil: Confronting the Risks, p 235-239. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc.

Schliebe, S., T. Evans, K. Johnson, M. Roy, S. Miller, C. Hamilton, R. Meehan, S. Jahrsdoerfer (Eds.) 2006. Range-wide status review of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) [PDF]. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage,Alaska

Schweinsburg, R. 1979. Summer snow dens used by polar bears in the Canadian High Arctic. Arctic, 32(2):165-169.

Servheen, C. 1989. The Status and Conservation of the Bears of the World.  A paper presented at the Eighth International Conference on Bear Research and Management, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, February.

Shields, G. F., and  T. D. Kocher.1991. Phylogenetic relationships of North American ursids based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Evolution, 45(1):218-221.

Smith, T. G., and B. Sjare. 1990. Predation of belugas and narwhals by polar bears near shore areas of the Canadian High Arctic. Arctic, 43(2) :99-102.

Stirling, I. 1977. Adaptations of Weddell and ringed seals to exploit the polar fast ice habitat in the absence or presence of surface predators. G. A. Llano (Ed.) In: Adaptations within Antarctic Ecosystems. Gulf, Houston, TX. pp. 741-748.

Stirling, I. (ed) 1993. Bears: Majestic Creatures of the Wild.  Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale Press.

Stirling, I. 1998. Polar Bears. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Stirling, J. and C. Parkinson. 2006. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic [PDF]. Arctic 59:261-275.

Stirling, I. and A. Derocher 2007. Melting under pressure: the real scoop on climate warming and polar bears [PDF]. The Wildlife Professional. Fall 2007

Stirling, I. A. Derocher, W. Gough, K. Rode 2008. Response to Dyck et al (2007) on polar bears and climate change in western Hudson Bay. Ecological Complexity 5(3):193-201.

Swaisgood, R. and D. Shepherdson 2006. Environmental enrichment as a strategy for mitigating stereotypies in zoo animals: a literature review and metaanalysis.

Taylor, M. K. et al.1991. Observation of a polar bear with rabies. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 27(2):337-339.

Travis, J.  1994. Taking a bottom-to-sky 'slice' of the Arctic Ocean. Science, December 23, 226 :1947-1948.

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Van de Velde, F., Omi, I. Stirling, E. Richardson. 2003. Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Denning in the Area of the Simpson Peninsula, Nunavut. Artic 56(2): 191-197.

Watts, P. and S. Hansen 1987. Cyclic starvation as a reproductive strategy in the polar bear. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. 57:3-5-318.

Watts, P. D, K. L.  Ferguson, and B. A. Draper. 1991. Energetic output of subadult polar bears (Ursus maritimus): resting, disturbance and locomotion. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A: Comparative Physiology 98(2): 191-193.

Wayne, R., B. Van Valkenburgh, and S.J. O’Brien. 1991. Molecular distance and divergence time in carnivores and primates. Molecular Biology and Evolution 8(3):297-319.

Wechsler, B. 1991. Stereotypies in polar bears. Zoo Biology, 10(2):177-188.

Welch AJ, Bedoya-Reina OC, Carretero-Paulet L, Miller W, Rode KD, Lindqvist C. Polar bears exhibit genome-wide signatures of bioenergetic adaptation to life in the Arctic environment. Genome Biology and Evolution. 2014; DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evu025.

Wemmer, C., M. Von Ebers, and K. Scow.  1976. An analysis of the chuffing vocalization in the Polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Zoology,180:425-439.

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