Skip to Main Content
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance logo
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library logo

Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Aars, J., N. J. Lunn and A. E. Derocher (eds) 2006. Polar Bears, Proceedings of the 14th working meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group. 2024 June 2005, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U. K.: IUCN.

Aars J, Andersen M, Brenière A, Blanc S. 2015. White-beaked dolphins trapped in the ice and eaten by polar bears. Polar Research. 34(1):26612. doi:10.3402/polar.v34.26612.

Agnarsson, I., M. Kuntner, L. May-Collado 2010. Dogs, cats, and kin: A molecular species-level phylogeny of Carnivora. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54:726-745.

Alaska Department of Fish & Game. 1996. Polar bear life history and habitat requirement: arctic and western regions. In: Alaska Habitat Management Guide: Life Histories and Habitat Requirements of Fish and Wildlife. Juneau: State of Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Habitat.

Ames, A. 1993. The behaviour of captive polar bears. UFAW Animal Welfare Research Report 5: 1-67

Armstrup, S. C., and C. L. Gardner. 1994. Polar bear maternity denning in the Beaufort Sea. Journal of Wildlife Management, 58(1):1-10.

Amstrup, S. C., G. Durner, I. Stirling, N. Lunn, F. Messier 2000. Movements and distribution of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 948-66.

Amstrup, S. C., Marcot, B. G. & Douglas, D. C. (2008). A Bayesian network modeling approach to forecasting the 21st century worldwide status of polar bears. In: DeWeaver, E. T., Bitz, C. M. & Tremblay, L.-B. (eds.), Arctic sea ice decline: Observations, projections, mechanisms, and implications. Geophysical Monograph 180 (pp. 213–268). Washington DC: American Geophysical Union. doi:10.1029/180GM14.

Andersen M, Derocher AE, Wiig Ø, Aars J. 2012. Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternity den distribution in Svalbard, Norway. Polar Biol. 35(4):499–508. doi:10.1007/s00300-011-1094-y.

Atkinson, S. N. and M. A. Ramsay 1995. The effects of prolonged fasting of the body composition and reproductive success of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Functional Ecology 9:559-567.

Atwood TC, Peacock E, McKinney MA, Lillie K, Wilson R, Douglas DC, Miller S, Terletzky P. 2016. Rapid environmental change drives increased land use by an Arctic marine predator. PLoS ONE. 11(6):e0155932. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155932.

Atwood TC, Rode KD, Douglas DC, Simac K, Pagano AM, Bromaghin JF. 2021. Long-term variation in polar bear body condition and maternal investment relative to a changing environment. Global Ecology and Conservation. 32:e01925. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2021.e01925.

Amstrup, S. C. 2003. Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus. In: G. Feldhamer, B. Thompson, J. Chapman (eds.) Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore and London.

Auger-Méthé M, Lewis MA, Derocher AE. 2016. Home ranges in moving habitats: polar bears and sea ice. Ecography. 39(1):26–35. doi:10.1111/ecog.01260.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Feb 08].

Barnas AF, Iles DT, Stechmann TJ, Wampole EM, Koons DN, Rockwell RF, Ellis-Felege SN. 2020. A phenological comparison of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) as waterfowl nest predators in Wapusk National Park. Polar Biol. 43(5):457–465. doi:10.1007/s00300-020-02647-w.

Best RC. 1977. Ecological aspects of polar bear nutrition. In: Proceedings of the 1975 predator symposium. Missoula: University of Montana Press.

Beyens L, van Meurs R. 2019. The future polar bear: the impact of the vanishing sea ice on an Arctic ecosystem. Brussels: Academic and Scientific Publishers.

Biddlecombe BA, Derocher AE, Richardson ES, Stirling I. 2019. Behaviour and characteristics of mating polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Beaufort Sea, Canada. Polar Biol. 42(5):919–929. doi:10.1007/s00300-019-02485-5.

Born, E. W., A. Renzoni, and R. Dietz. 1991. Total mercury in hair of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Greenland and Svalbard. Polar Research, 9(2) :113-120.

Born, E. W., and S. A. Henriksen.1990. Prevalence of Trichinella sp. in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from northeastern Greenland. Polar Research, 8(2) :313-316.

Bourque J, Atwood TC, Divoky GJ, Stewart C, McKinney MA. 2020. Fatty acid‐based diet estimates suggest ringed seal remain the main prey of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears despite recent use of onshore food resources. Ecol Evol. 10(4):2093–2103. doi:10.1002/ece3.6043.

Bromaghin JF, McDonald TL, Stirling I, Derocher AE, Richardson ES, Regehr EV, Douglas DC, Durner GM, Atwood T, Amstrup SC. 2015. Polar bear population dynamics in the southern Beaufort Sea during a period of sea ice decline. Ecological Applications. 25(3):634–651. doi:10.1890/14-1129.1.

Brook RK, Richardson ES. 2002. Observations of polar bear predatory behaviour toward caribou. ARCTIC. 55(2):193–196. doi:10.14430/arctic703.

Brown, G. 1993. The Great Bear Almanac. N. Y.  Lyons & Burford.

Brown TA, Galicia MP, Thiemann GW, Belt ST, Yurkowski DJ, Dyck MG. 2018. High contributions of sea ice derived carbon in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissue. Derocher A, editor. PLoS ONE. 13(1):e0191631. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0191631.

Castro de la Guardia L, Derocher AE, Myers PG, Terwisscha van Scheltinga AD, Lunn NJ. 2013. Future sea ice conditions in Western Hudson Bay and consequences for polar bears in the 21st century. Glob Change Biol. 19(9):2675–2687. doi:10.1111/gcb.12272.

Cherry SG, Derocher AE, Thiemann GW, Lunn NJ. 2013. Migration phenology and seasonal fidelity of an Arctic marine predator in relation to sea ice dynamics. J Anim Ecol. 82(4):912–921. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12050.

Cherry SG, Derocher AE, and Lunn NJ. 2016. Habitat-mediated timing of migration in polar bears: an individual perspective. Ecol Evol n/a-n/a.

Clark DA, Brook R, Oliphant-Reskanski C, Laforge MP, Olson K, Rivet D. 2019. Novel range overlap of three ursids in the Canadian subarctic. Arctic Science. 5(1):62–70. doi:10.1139/as-2018-0013.

Clubb, R. and S. Vickery 2006. Locomotory stereotypies in carnivores: does pacing stem from hunting, ranging or frustrated escape? In: Stereotypic Animal Behavior: Fundamentals and Applications to Welfare. CAB International, Oxfordshire UK and Cambridge MA, USA. pp. 58-85.

Cronin, M. A., S. C. Armstrup, G. W. Garner, and E. R. Vyse. 1991. Interspecific and intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in North American bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69(12):2985-2992.

Cronin MA, Rincon G, Meredith RW, MacNeil MD, Islas-Trejo A, Cánovas A, Medrano JF. 2014. Molecular phylogeny and SNP variation of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) derived from genome sequences. Journal of Heredity. 105(3):312–323. doi:10.1093/jhered/est133.

Cushing, B., N. Cushing, C. Jonkel 1988. Polar bear responses to the underwater vocalizations of ringed seals. Polar Biology 1988:123-124.

DeMaster, D. P., and I. Stirling. 1981. Ursus maritimus. Mammalian Species, (145):1- 7.

Derocher, A. E. 1999. Latitudinal variation in litter size of polar bears: ecology or methodology? Polar Biol 22, 350–356.

Derocher AE, Andersen M, Wiig Ø. 2005. Sexual dimorphism of polar bears. Journal of Mammalogy. 86(5):895–901. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2005)86[895:SDOPB]2.0.CO;2.

Derocher, A. E. 2010. Personal communication.

Derocher, A. E. 2012. Polar bears: a complete guide to their biology and behavior. Baltimate (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press.

Derocher, A. E., and I. Stirling. 1990. Observations of aggregating behaviour in adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68(7):1390-1394.

Derocher, A. E., Nelson, R., I. Stirling, M. Ramsay 1990. Effects of fasting and feeding on serum urea and serum creatinine levels in polar bears. Marine Mammal Science 6:196-203.

Derocher, A. E., I. Stirling, and D. Andriashek. 1992. Pregnancy rates and serum progesterone levels of polar bears in Western Hudson Bay. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70(3):561-566.

Derocher, A. E., and I. Stirling. 1992. The population dynamics of polar bears in western Hudson Bay. In: D. R. McCullough and R. H. Barrett, eds. Wildlife 2001: Populations, p.1150-1159. London: Elsevier Applied Science, Ltd.

Derocher, A. E., D. Andriashek, and  J.P. Y. Arnould. 1993. Aspects of milk composition and lactation in polar bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 71(3):561-567.

Derocher AE, Andersen M, Wiig Ø, Aars J. 2010. Sexual dimorphism and the mating ecology of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Behav Ecol Sociobiol. 64(6):939–946. doi:10.1007/s00265-010-0909-0.

Derocher, A. E., D. Andriashek, and I. Stirling. 1993. Terrestrial foraging by polar bears during the ice-free period in western Hudson Bay. Arctic, 46(3):251-254.

Derocher, A. E., and I.Stirling. 1994. Age-specific reproductive performance of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) Journal of Zoology, 234(4):527-536.

Derocher, A. E., N. Lunn, I. Stirling 2004. Polar bears in a warming climate. Integrative and Comparative Biology 44:163-176.

Derocher, A. M. Anderson,Øystein Whg 2005. Sexual dimorphism of polar bears. Journal of Mammalogy 86(5):895-901.

Dietz, R., Rigét, F.F., Sonne, C., Born, E.W., Bechshøft, T., McKinney, M.A. and Letcher, R.J. 2013a. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 1: Legacy organochlorine contaminants. Environment International 59: 485-493.

Dietz, R., Rigét, F.F., Sonne, C., Born, E.W., Bechshøft, T., McKinney, M.A., Drimmie, R.J., Muir, D.C.G., and Letcher, R.J. 2013b. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 2: Brominated flame retardant . Environment International 59: 494-500.

Dominique M, Letcher RJ, Rutter A, Langlois VS. 2020. Comparative review of the distribution and burden of contaminants in the body of polar bears. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 27(26):32456–32466. doi:10.1007/s11356-020-09193-2.

Dowsley, M. 2007. Inuit perspectives on polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and climate change in Baffin Bay, Nunavut, Canada [PDF]. Research and Practice in Social Sciences 2(2):53-74.

Durner, G. M., S. C. Amstrup, and K. J. Ambrosius. 2006. Polar bear maternal den habitat in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Arctic 59(1): 31-36 (March 2006).

Durner GM, Whiteman JP, Harlow HJ, Amstrup SC, Regehr EV, Ben-David M. 2011. Consequences of long-distance swimming and travel over deep-water pack ice for a female polar bear during a year of extreme sea ice retreat. Polar Biol. 34(7):975–984. doi:10.1007/s00300-010-0953-2.

Durner GM, Douglas DC, Albeke SE, Whiteman JP, Amstrup SC, Richardson E, Wilson RR, Ben‐David M. 2017. Increased Arctic sea ice drift alters adult female polar bear movements and energetics. Glob Change Biol. 23(9):3460–3473. doi:10.1111/gcb.13746.

Durner GM, Douglas DC, Atwood AC. 2019. Polar bear distribution and habitat resource selection data, Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, 1985-2016. Ecology and Evolution 9(15): 8625–8638. doi:10.5066/P9ZRJ3XU.

Dyck M, Regehr EV, Ware JV. 2023. Demographic assessment using physical and genetic sampling finds stable polar bear subpopulation in Gulf of Boothia, Canada. Marine Mammal Science. 39(1):151–174. doi:10.1111/mms.12968.

Dyck MG, Romberg S. 2007. Observations of a wild polar bear (Ursus maritimus) successfully fishing Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and Fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis). Polar Biol. 30(12):1625–1628. doi:10.1007/s00300-007-0338-3.

Farley, S.D., and C. T. Robbins. 1994. Development of two methods to estimate body composition of bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 72(2):220-226.

Ferguson S. H., M. K. Taylor, E. W. Born, A. Rosing-Asvid, and F. Messier. 1999. Determinants of home range size for polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Ecology Letters 2:311–318. doi:10.1046/j.1461-0248.1999.00090.x.

Ferguson, S., M. Taylor, A. Rosing-Asvid, E. Born, F. Messier 2000. Relationships between denning of polar bears and conditions of sea ice. Journal of Mammalogy 81(4):1118-1127.

Fischbach, A. S., S. C. Amstrup, and D. C. Douglas. 2007. Landward and eastward shift of Alaskan polar bear denning associated with recent sea-ice changes. Polar Biology 30:1395–1405.

Florko KRN, Thiemann GW, Bromaghin JF, Richardson ES. 2021. Diet composition and body condition of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to sea ice habitat in the Canadian High Arctic. Polar Biol. 44(7):1445–1456. doi:10.1007/s00300-021-02891-8.

Folk, G. E., A. Larson, and M. Folk 1976. Physiology of hibernating bears [PDF] In: Pelton, M., J. Lentfer, G.E. Folk (Eds). Bears - their biology and management. IUCN Publ. New Series 40. A Selection of Papers from the Third International Conference on Bear Research and Management, New York and Moscow, June 1974.

Folk, G. E., J. Hunt, M. Folk. 1980. Further evidence for hibernation of bears. International Conference for Bear Research and Management. 4: 43-47.

Forthman, D. L. et al. 1992. Effects of feeding enrichment on behavior of three species of captive bears. Zoo Biology, 11 (3):187-195.

Galicia MP, Thiemann GW, Dyck MG, Ferguson SH. 2015. Characterization of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) diets in the Canadian High Arctic. Polar Biol. 38(12):1983–1992. doi:10.1007/s00300-015-1757-1.

Galicia MP, Thiemann GW, Dyck MG, Ferguson SH, Higdon JW. 2016. Dietary habits of polar bears in Foxe Basin, Canada: possible evidence of a trophic regime shift mediated by a new top predator. Ecol Evol. 6(16):6005–6018. doi:10.1002/ece3.2173.

Garner, G. W. et al. 1994. Habitat considerations for polar bears in the North Pacific rim. In: Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, 59; Conference on International partnerships for fish and wildlife, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, March 18-23, 1994. 617p. Washington, DC: Wildlife Management Institute.

Ginsburg, L. 1961. Plantigrady and digitigrady in the fissiped carnivorans [PDF]. Mammalia 25(1)1-21. 1961 Translated by M. Carrano, U. of Chicago 1994.
Gittleman, J. L. 1993. Carnivore Life Histories: a re-analysis in the light of new models. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, No. 65. p. 65-86.

Gittleman, J. L., (ed.) 1989  Carnivore behavior, ecology and evolution. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Green PA, Van Valkenburgh B, Pang B, Bird D, Rowe T, Curtis A. 2012. Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans. Journal of Anatomy. 221(6):609–621. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2012.01570.x.

Griffen BD. 2018. Modeling the metabolic costs of swimming in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Polar Biol. 41, 491-503.

Griffen BD, Whiteman JP, Pullan S. 2022. Significance of autumn and winter food consumption for reproduction by Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears, Ursus maritimus. Polar Biol. 45(8):1351–1362. doi:10.1007/s00300-022-03066-9.

Hailer F, Kutschera VE, Hallström BM, Klassert D, Fain SR, Leonard JA, Arnason U, Janke A. 2012. Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage. Science. 336(6079):344–347. doi:10.1126/science.1216424.

Hamilton SG, Derocher AE. 2019. Assessment of global polar bear abundance and vulnerability. Animal Conservation. 22(1):83–95. doi:10.1111/acv.12439.

Hamilton CD, Kovacs KM, Ims RA, Aars J, Lydersen C. 2017. An Arctic predator-prey system in flux: climate change impacts on coastal space use by polar bears and ringed seals. J Anim Ecol. 86(5):1054–1064. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12685.

Harington, C. R. 1963. Polar bear study - Southampton Island, Northwest Territories, 1963. Canadian Wildlife Service Report pp. 1-57.

____________. 1968. Denning habits of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phippus). Canadian Wildlife Service. Report Series - Number 5.

Harwood LA, Smith TG, George JC, Sandstrom SJ, Walkusz W, Divoky GJ. 2015. Change in the Beaufort Sea ecosystem: Diverging trends in body condition and/or production in five marine vertebrate species. Progress in Oceanography. 136:263–273. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2015.05.003.

Hunter CM, Caswell H, Runge MC, Regehr EV, Amstrup SC, Stirling I. 2010. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: a stochastic demographic analysis. Ecology. 91(10):2883–2897. doi:10.1890/09-1641.1.

Infólfsson, Ó. and Ø. Wiig. 2009. Late Pleistocene fossil find in Svalbard: the oldest remains of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1944) ever discovered. Polar Research 28(3):455-462.

IUCN Redlist of Endangered Species 2009. Polar Bears.

IUCN 2009. Polar Bears. Press release of 15th meeting of PBSC in Copenhagen, Denmark. June 20-July 3.

IUCN 2016. Polar Bears. Proceeds of 18th working meeting of the IUCN/SSC  Polar Bear Specialist Group. Anchorage, Alaska. June 7-11. Compiled and edited by Durner G., Laidre K. and York G.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) 2010. Uploaded Feb. 2010.

ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) [Internet database]. 2023. Ursus maritimus. TSN 180542; [accessed 2023 Jan 27].

IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group. 2021. Status report on the world’s polar bear subpopulations. [accessed 2023 Jan 27].

Ivanov EA, Mizin IA, Kirilov AG, Platonov NG, Mordvintsev IN, Naidenko SV, Rozhnov VV. 2020. Observations of intraspecific killing, cannibalism, and aggressive behavior among polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the eastern Barents Sea and the Kara Sea. Polar Biol. 43(12):2121–2127. doi:10.1007/s00300-020-02771-7.

Iversen M, Aars J, Haug T, Alsos IG, Lydersen C, Bachmann L, Kovacs KM. 2013. The diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway, inferred from scat analysis. Polar Biol. 36(4):561–571. doi:10.1007/s00300-012-1284-2.

Jenness, R., W. Erickson, J. Craighead. 1972. Some comparative aspects of milk from four species of bears. Journal of Mammalogy 53:34-47.

Jonkel, C. G. Kolenosky, R. Robertson, R. Russell 1972. Further notes on polar bear denning habits. In: Herrero, S. (Ed.) Bears: Their Biology and Management. International Union for the Conservation of Nature. New Series No. 23:142-158.

Kohm, A. 1991. Vitamin AD3E-supplement revitalized breeding of polar bears in Karlsruhe. Zoologische Garten 61(1):21-23.  In German with English summary.

Krause, J., T. Unger, A. Nocon, A-S. Malaspinas, S-O Kolokotronis, M. Stiller et al 2008. Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8:220

Kurt, F. 1990. Large Bears In: Grizimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals Vol. 3. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. pp. 480-492

Kurtén, B. 1995. The Cave Bear Story. Columbia University Press. pp. 143-144.

Laidre KL, Born EW, Heagerty P, Wiig Ø, Stern H, Dietz R, Aars J, Andersen M. 2015. Shifts in female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) habitat use in East Greenland. Polar Biol. 38(6):879–893. doi:10.1007/s00300-015-1648-5.

Laforge MP, Clark DA, Schmidt AL, Lankshear JL, Kowalchuk S, Brook RK. 2017. Temporal aspects of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) occurrences at field camps in Wapusk National Park, Canada. Polar Biol. 40(8):1661–1670. doi:10.1007/s00300-017-2091-6.

Laidre KL, Born EW, Gurarie E, Wiig Ø, Dietz R, Stern H. 2013. Females roam while males patrol: divergence in breeding season movements of pack-ice polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Proc R Soc B. 280(1752):20122371. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.2371.

Laidre KL, Northey AD, Ugarte F. 2018a. Traditional knowledge about polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in East Greenland: changes in the catch and climate over two decades. Front Mar Sci. 5:135. doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00135.

Laidre K, Stern H, Born E, Heagerty P, Atkinson S, Wiig Ø, Lunn N, Regehr E, McGovern R, Dyck M. 2018b. Changes in winter and spring resource selection by polar bears Ursus maritimus in Baffin Bay over two decades of sea-ice loss. Endang Species Res. 36:1–14. doi:10.3354/esr00886.

Laidre KL, Supple MA, Born EW, Regehr EV, Wiig Ø, Ugarte F, Aars J, Dietz R, Sonne C, Hegelund P, et al. 2022. Glacial ice supports a distinct and undocumented polar bear subpopulation persisting in late 21st-century sea-ice conditions. Science. 376(6599):1333–1338. doi:10.1126/science.abk2793.

Lan T, Leppälä K, Tomlin C, Talbot SL, Sage GK, Farley SD, Shideler RT, Bachmann L, Wiig Ø, Albert VA, et al. 2022. Insights into bear evolution from a Pleistocene polar bear genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 119(24):e2200016119. doi:10.1073/pnas.2200016119.

Lang, J.S. 1992. White bears, black gold. Defenders 67(1) :10-21.

Larson WJ, Smith TS, York G. 2020. Human interaction and disturbance of denning polar bears on Alaska’s North Slope. Arctic. 78(2):195–205.

Latinen, K. 1987. Longevity and fertility of the polar bear, Ursus maritimus Phipps, in captivity. Zoologische Garten, 57(22-3) : 197-199.

Law, G. 1993.  ABWAK conference proceedings. Part 1: behavioural enrichment. Ratel, 20(4): 123-131.

Lennox, A., R. A. Goodship, 2008 Polar bears (Ursus maritimus), the most evolutionary advanced hibernators, avoid significant bone los during hibernation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A.: Molecular & Integrative Physiology,149(2): 203-208

Lentfer, J.  1982. Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus). In: J.A. Chapman, and G.A. Feldhamer eds. Wild mammals of North America, pp 557-566. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Letcher, R.J., Bustnes, J.O., Dietz, R., Jenssen, B.M., Jørgensen, E.H., Sonne, C., Verreault, J., Vijayan, M.M. and Gabrielsen, G.W. 2010. Exposure and effects assessment of persistent organohalogen contaminants in arctic wildlife and fish. Science of the Total Environment 408: 2995-3043. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.038.

Levenson DH, Ponganis PJ, Crognale MA, Deegan JF, Dizon A, Jacobs GH. 2006. Visual pigments of marine carnivores: pinnipeds, polar bear, and sea otter. J Comp Physiol A. 192(8):833–843. doi:10.1007/s00359-006-0121-x.

Lillie KM, Gese EM, Atwood TC, Sonsthagen SA. 2018. Development of on‐shore behavior among polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea: inherited or learned? Ecol Evol. 8(16):7790–7799. doi:10.1002/ece3.4233.

Lindqvist, Charlotte, Stephan C. Schuster, Yazhou Sun, Sandra L. Talbot, Ji Qi, Aakrosh Ratan, Lynn P. Tomsho, Lindsay Kasson, Eve Zeyl, Jon Aars, Webb Miller, Ólafur Ingólfsson, Lutz Bachmann, and Øystein Wiig. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 107:5053. PNAS published online before print March 1, 2010. 

Liu S, Lorenzen ED, Fumagalli M, Li B, Harris K, Xiong Z, Zhou L, Korneliussen TS, Somel M, Babbitt C, et al. 2014. Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears. Cell. 157(4):785–794. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.054.

Lone K, Kovacs KM, Lydersen C, Fedak M, Andersen M, Lovell P, Aars J. 2018a. Aquatic behaviour of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in an increasingly ice-free Arctic. Sci Rep. 8(1):9677. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-27947-4.

Lone, K., Merkel, B., Lydersen, C., Kovacs, K. M. & Aars, J. 2018b. Sea ice resource selection models for polar bears in the Barents Sea
subpopulation. Ecography 41, 567–578.

Lønø, O. 1970. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps) in the Svalbard area. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter 149.

Malenfant RM, Coltman DW, Richardson ES, Lunn NJ, Stirling I, Adamowicz E, Davis CS. 2016a. Evidence of adoption, monozygotic twinning, and low inbreeding rates in a large genetic pedigree of polar bears. Polar Biol. 39(8):1455–1465. doi:10.1007/s00300-015-1871-0.

Malenfant RM, Davis CS, Cullingham CI, Coltman DW. 2016b. Circumpolar genetic structure and recent gene flow of polar bears: a reanalysis. PLoS ONE. 11(3):e0148967. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148967.

Malyev, A.V. et al. 1991.  Reproduction and sexual behavior of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps) in the Kazan Zoobotanical Garden. Appendix: breeding of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the zoos of the Soviet Union. In: Occasional Papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (No. 7) 1991: 89.

Matthews, D. 1991. Don't mess with mom. Wildlife Conservation, March/April:40-45.

McCall AG, Derocher AE, Lunn NJ. 2015. Home range distribution of polar bears in western Hudson Bay. Polar Biol. 38(3):343–355. doi:10.1007/s00300-014-1590-y.

McGee-Lawrence, M., H. Carey, S. Donahue 2008. Mammalian hibernation as a model of disuse osteoporosis: the effects of physical inactivity on bone metabolism, structure, and strength. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 295:1999-2014.

McKenna, M., S. Bell 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York. pp. 250-251.

McKinney MA, Atwood TC, Iverson SJ, Peacock E. 2017. Temporal complexity of southern Beaufort Sea polar bear diets during a period of increasing land use. Ecosphere. 8(1):e01633. doi:10.1002/ecs2.1633.

McKinney MA, Iverson SJ, Fisk AT, Sonne C, Rigét FF, Letcher RJ, Arts MT, Born EW, Rosing-Asvid A, Dietz R. 2013. Global change effects on the long-term feeding ecology and contaminant exposures of East Greenland polar bears. Glob Change Biol. 19(8):2360–2372. doi:10.1111/gcb.12241.

Merkel B, Aars J. 2022. Shifting polar bear Ursus maritimus denning habitat availability in the European Arctic. Polar Biol. 45(3):481–490. doi:10.1007/s00300-022-03016-5.

Messier, F., M. K. Taylor, and M. A. Ramsay. 1994. Denning ecology of polar bears in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Journal of Mammalogy, 75(2): 420-430.

Messier, F., M. K. Taylor, and M. A. Ramsay. 1992. Seasonal activity patterns of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic as revealed by Satellite Telemetry. Journal of Zoology, 226(2):219-229.

Michaux J, Dyck M, Boag P, Lougheed S, Van Coeverden de Groot P. 2021. New insights on polar bear (Ursus maritimus) diet from faeces based on next-generation sequencing technologies. Arctic. 74(1):87–99. doi:10.14430/arctic72239.

Miller EN, Lunn NJ, McGeachy D, Derocher AE. 2022. Autumn migration phenology of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in Hudson Bay, Canada. Polar Biol. 45(6):1023–1034. doi:10.1007/s00300-022-03050-3.

Miller W, Schuster SC, Welch AJ, Ratan A, Bedoya-Reina OC, Zhao F, Kim HL, Burhans RC, Drautz DI, Wittekindt NE, et al. 2012. Polar and brown bear genomes reveal ancient admixture and demographic footprints of past climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 109(36). doi:10.1073/pnas.1210506109.

Miller S, Wilder J, Wilson RR. 2015. Polar bear–grizzly bear interactions during the autumn open-water period in Alaska. JMAMMAL. 96(6):1317–1325. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyv140.

Molnár, P.K., Bitz, C.M., Holland, M.M. et al. 2020.Fasting season length sets temporal limits for global polar bear persistence. Nat. Clim. Chang. 10, 732–738. doi:10.1038/s41558-020-0818-9.

Molnár PK, Derocher AE, Thiemann GW, Lewis MA. 2010. Predicting survival, reproduction and abundance of polar bears under climate change. Biological Conservation. 143(7):1612–1622. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.04.004.

Monnett C, Gleason JS. 2006. Observations of mortality associated with extended open-water swimming by polar bears in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Polar Biology, 29, 681–687.

Morris, P. J. et al. 1989. Diagnosis and treatment of systemic blastomycosis in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus) with itraconazole. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 20(3) :336-345.

Nachtigall, P., A. Supin, M. Amundin, B. Roken, T. Moller, T. A. Mooney, K. Taylor, M. Yuen. 2007. Polar bear Ursus maritimus hearing measured with auditory evoked potentials [PDF]. Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 1116-1122.

Nelson, R. A. 1987. Black bears and polar bears - Still metabolic marvels. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 62:85--853.

Nelson, R. A., G. E. Folk, E. Pfeiffer, J. Craighead, C. Jonkel, D. Steiger 1980. Behavior, biochemistry, and hibernation in black, grizzly, and polar bears [PDF]. Bears: Their Biology and Management, Vol 5, A Selection of Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Bear Research and Management, Madison, Wisconsin. U. S. A.

Nelson, R. A., T.D. Beck, D. Steiger 1984. Ratio of serum urea to serum creatinine in wild black bears. Science 226:841-842.

Nuijten RJM, Hendriks AJ, Jenssen BM, Schipper AM. 2016. Circumpolar contaminant concentrations in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and potential population-level effects. Environmental Research. 151:50–57. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.021.

Nowak, R. M. Walker's Mammals of the World Vol.II, 5th ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp 1092-1094.

Nguyen L, Pilfold NW, Derocher AE, Stirling I, Bohart AM, Richardson E. 2017. Ringed seal (Pusa hispida) tooth annuli as an index of reproduction in the Beaufort Sea. Ecological Indicators. 77:286–292. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.02.003.

O'Brien, S. J. 2003. Tears of the Cheetah and Other Tales from the Genetic Frontier. St. Martin's Press, New York. pp. 140-143

O’Neill SJ, Osborn TJ, Hulme M, Lorenzoni I, Watkinson AR. 2008. Using expert knowledge to assess uncertainties in future polar bear populations under climate change. Journal of Applied Ecology. 45(6):1649–1659. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01552.x.

Obbard ME, Cattet MRL, Howe EJ, Middel KR, Newton EJ, Kolenosky GB, Abraham KF, Greenwood CJ. 2016. Trends in body condition in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Southern Hudson Bay subpopulation in relation to changes in sea ice. Arctic Science. 2(1):15–32. doi:10.1139/as-2015-0027.

Olson J, Rode K, Eggett D, Smith T, Wilson R, Durner G, Fischbach A, Atwood T, Douglas D. 2017. Collar temperature sensor data reveal long-term patterns in southern Beaufort Sea polar bear den distribution on pack ice and land. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 564:211–224. doi:10.3354/meps12000.

Onorato, D. P., E. C. Hellgren, R.A. Van Den Bussche, J.R. Skiles. 2004. Paternity and relatedness of American black bears recolonizing a desert montane island. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 92:1201-1210.

Ovsyanikov, N. 1992. Ursus ubiquitous. BBC Wildlife, 10(12) : 18- 16.

Ovsyanikov, N. 1996. Polar Bears: Living with the White Bear. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, Inc. 144 pp.

Owen, M. 2009. Loud and Clear: Noise Disturbance and the effect on polar bears. in: Zoonooz, Feb 2007. San Diego Zoological Society. pp 20-23.

Owen MA, Pagano AM, Wisdom SS, Kirschhoffer B, Bowles AE, O’Neill C. 2021. Estimating the audibility of industrial noise to denning polar bears. Jour Wild Mgmt. 85(2):384–396. doi:10.1002/jwmg.21977.

Paetkau D, Amstrup SC, Born EW, Calvert W, Derocher AE, Garner GW, Messier F, Stirling I, Taylor MK, Wiig O, et al. 1999. Genetic structure of the world’s polar bear populations. Mol Ecol. 8(10):1571–1584. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.1999.00733.x.


Pagano AM, Atwood TC, Durner GM, Williams TM. 2020. The seasonal energetic landscape of an apex marine carnivore, the polar bear. Ecology. 101(3). doi:10.1002/ecy.2959.

Pagano AM, Carnahan AM, Robbins CT, Owen MA, Batson T, Wagner N, Cutting A, Nicassio-Hiskey N, Hash A, Williams TM. 2018a. Energetic costs of locomotion in bears: is plantigrade locomotion energetically economical? Journal of Experimental Biology. 221(12):jeb175372. doi:10.1242/jeb.175372.

Pagano AM, Cutting A, Nicassio‐Hiskey N, et al. 2019. Energetic costs of aquatic locomotion in a subadult polar bear. Mar Mam Sci 35: 649–59.

Pagano AM, Durner GM, Rode KD, Atwood TC, Atkinson SN, Peacock E, Costa DP, Owen MA, Williams TM. 2018b. High-energy, high-fat lifestyle challenges an Arctic apex predator, the polar bear. Science. 359(6375):568–572. doi:10.1126/science.aan8677.

Pagano AM, Williams TM. 2021. Physiological consequences of Arctic sea ice loss on large marine carnivores: unique responses by polar bears and narwhals. Journal of Experimental Biology. 224(Suppl_1):jeb228049. doi:10.1242/jeb.228049.

Pagano AM, Durner GM, Amstrup SC, Simac KS, York GS. 2012. Long-distance swimming by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea during years of extensive open water. Can J Zool. 90(5):663–676. doi:10.1139/z2012-033.

Pagano AM, Durner GM, Atwood TC, Douglas DC. 2021. Effects of sea ice decline and summer land use on polar bear home range size in the Beaufort Sea. Ecosphere. 12(10). doi:10.1002/ecs2.3768.

Parks EK, Derocher AE, Lunn NJ. 2006. Seasonal and annual movement patterns of polar bears on the sea ice of Hudson Bay. Can J Zool 84:1281–1294.

Patil VP, Durner GM, Douglas DC, Atwood TC. 2022. Modeling the spatial and temporal dynamics of land‐based polar bear denning in Alaska. J Wildl Manag. 86(8). doi:10.1002/jwmg.22302.

Peacock E, Derocher AE, Thiemann GW, Stirling I. 2011. Conservation and management of Canada’s polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in a changing Arctic. Can J Zool. 89(5):371–385. doi:10.1139/z11-021.

Petherick AS, Reuther JD, Shirar SJ, Anderson SL, DeSantis LRG. 2021. Dietary ecology of Alaskan polar bears (Ursus maritimus) through time and in response to Arctic climate change. Glob Change Biol. 27(13):3109–3119. doi:10.1111/gcb.15573.

Pilfold NW, Derocher AE, Stirling I, and Richardson E. 2013. Polar bear predatory behaviour reveals seascape distribution of ringed seal lairs. Popul Ecol 56: 129–38.

Pilfold NW, Derocher AE, Richardson E. 2014. Influence of intraspecific competition on the distribution of a wide‐ranging, non‐territorial carnivore. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 23(4):425–435. doi:10.1111/geb.12112.

Pilfold NW, McCall A, Derocher AE, Lunn NJ, Richardson E. 2017. Migratory response of polar bears to sea ice loss: to swim or not to swim. Ecography. 40(1):189–199. doi:10.1111/ecog.02109.

Pilfold NW, Hedman D, Stirling I, Derocher AE, Lunn NJ, Richardson E. 2016. Mass loss rates of fasting polar bears. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 89(5):377–388. doi:10.1086/687988.

Pilfold NW, Richardson ES, Ellis J, Jenkins E, Scandrett WB, Hernández‐Ortiz A, Buhler K, McGeachy D, Al‐Adhami B, Konecsni K, et al. 2021. Long‐term increases in pathogen seroprevalence in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) influenced by climate change. Glob Change Biol. 27(19):4481–4497. doi:10.1111/gcb.15537.

Polar Bears International. 2023. Life cycle. [accessed on 17 May 2023].

Pond, C. M.,  C. A Mattacks,  R. H. Colby,  M. A. Ramsay. 1992. The anatomy, chemical composition, and metabolism of adipose tissue in wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus).Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70(2):326- 341.

Pongracz JD, Paetkau D, Branigan M, Richardson E. 2017a. Recent hybridization between a polar bear and grizzly bears in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic. 70(2):151. doi:10.14430/arctic4643.

Pongracz JD, Derocher AE. 2017b. Summer refugia of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea. Polar Biol. 40(4):753–763. doi:10.1007/s00300-016-1997-8.

Poulsen, E.M. B. 1992. Polar bear enrichment at the Calgary Zoo. Shape of Enrichment, 1(2): 10.

Prestrud, P., and I. Stirling. 1994. The international polar bear agreement and the current status of polar bear conservation. Aquatic Mammals, 20(3):113-124.

Prestrud, P., J. Krogsrud, I. Gjertz. 1992. The occurrence of rabies in the Svalbard Islands of Norway. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 28(1):57- 63.

Prop, J., Aars, J., Bårdsen, B.-J., Hanssen, S. A., Bech, C., Bourgeon, S. et al. (2015). Climate change and the increasing impact of polar bears on bird populations. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 3, 33.

Prop J, Oudman T, van Spanje TM, Wolters EH. 2013. Patterns of predation of Pink-footed Goose nests by polar bear. Ornis Norvegica 36:38–46.

Ramsay M.A. and K.A. Hobson. 1991. Polar bears make little use of terrestrial food webs: evidence from stable-carbon isotope analysis. Oecologia 86:598–600.

Ramsay, M. A., and I. Stirling. 1990. Fidelity of female polar bears to winter-den sites. Journal of Mammalogy, 71(2):233-236.

Ramsay, MA, I. Stirling. 1988. Reproductive biology and ecology of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Zoology, 214(4) : 601-634.

Ramsay, MA, I. Stirling. 1986. On the mating system of polar bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:2142-2151.

Regehr EV, Hostetter NJ, Wilson RR, Rode KD, St. Martin M, Converse SJ. 2018. Integrated population modeling provides the first empirical estimates of vital rates and abundance for polar bears in the Chukchi Sea. Sci Rep. 8(1):16780. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-34824-7.

Regehr EV, Hunter CM, Caswell H, Amstrup SC, Stirling I. 2010. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice. Journal of Animal Ecology. 79(1):117–127. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2009.01603.x.

Regehr EV, Laidre KL, Akçakaya HR, Amstrup SC, Atwood TC, Lunn NJ, Obbard M, Stern H, Thiemann GW, Wiig Ø. 2016. Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines. Biol Lett. 12(12):20160556. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2016.0556.

Regehr, E., N. Lunn, S. Amstrup, I. Stirling 2007. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in Western Hudson Bay. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(8):2673-2683.

Richardson ES, Davis C, Stirling I, Derocher AE, Lunn NJ, Malenfant RM. 2020. Variance in lifetime reproductive success of male polar bears. Behavioral Ecology. 31(5):1224–1232. doi:10.1093/beheco/araa074.

Rinker DC, Specian NK, Zhao S, Gibbons JG. 2019. Polar bear evolution is marked by rapid changes in gene copy number in response to dietary shift. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 116(27):13446–13451. doi:10.1073/pnas.1901093116.

Rode KD, Amstrup SC, Regehr EV. 2010. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline. Ecol Appl 20:768–782.

Rode KD, Douglas DC, Atwood TC, Durner GM, Wilson RR, Pagano AM. 2022. Observed and forecasted changes in land use by polar bears in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, 1985–2040. Global Ecology and Conservation. 40:e02319. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2022.e02319.

Rode KD, Olson J, Eggett D, Douglas DC, Durner GM, Atwood TC, Regehr EV, Wilson RR, Smith T, St. Martin M. 2018a. Den phenology and reproductive success of polar bears in a changing climate. Journal of Mammalogy. 99(1):16–26. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyx181.

Rode KD, Regehr EV, Bromaghin JF, Wilson RR, St. Martin M, Crawford JA, Quakenbush LT. 2021b. Seal body condition and atmospheric circulation patterns influence polar bear body condition, recruitment, and feeding ecology in the Chukchi Sea. Glob Change Biol. 27(12):2684–2701. doi:10.1111/gcb.15572.

Rode KD, Regehr EV, Douglas DC, Durner G, Derocher AE, Thiemann GW, Budge SM. 2014. Variation in the response of an Arctic top predator experiencing habitat loss: feeding and reproductive ecology of two polar bear populations. Glob Change Biol. 20(1):76–88. doi:10.1111/gcb.12339.

Rode KD, Robbins CT, Nelson L, Amstrup SC. 2015. Can polar bears use terrestrial foods to offset lost ice-based hunting opportunities? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 13(3):138–145. doi:10.1890/140202.

Rode KD, Voorhees H, Huntington HP, Durner GM. 2021a. Iñupiaq knowledge of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Arctic. 74(3):239–257. doi:10.14430/arctic73030.

Rode KD, Wilson RR, Douglas DC, Muhlenbruch V, Atwood TC, Regehr EV, Richardson ES, Pilfold NW, Derocher AE, Durner GM, et al. 2018b. Spring fasting behavior in a marine apex predator provides an index of ecosystem productivity. Glob Change Biol. 24(1):410–423. doi:10.1111/gcb.13933.

Rode KD, Wilson RR, Regehr EV, et al. 2015. Increased land use by Chukchi Sea polar bears in relation to changing sea ice conditions. PLoS One 10: e0142213.

Rogers MC, Peacock E, Simac K, O’Dell MB, Welker JM. 2015. Diet of female polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska: evidence for an emerging alternative foraging strategy in response to environmental change. Polar Biol. 38(7):1035–1047. doi:10.1007/s00300-015-1665-4.

Ronald K, Lee J. 1981. The spectral sensitivity of a polar bear. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology. 70(4):595–598. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(81)92582-2.


Rosing, N. 2006. The World of the Polar Bear. Firefly Books (U.S.) Inc. Buffalo, NY.
St Aubin, D. J. 1990. Physiologic and toxic effects on polar bears. In: R. Geraci, and D. J. St. Aubin, eds. Sea Mammals and Oil: Confronting the Risks, p 235-239. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc.

Schliebe, S., T. Evans, K. Johnson, M. Roy, S. Miller, C. Hamilton, R. Meehan, S. Jahrsdoerfer (Eds.) 2006. Range-wide status review of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) [PDF]. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage,Alaska

Schweinsburg, R. 1979. Summer snow dens used by polar bears in the Canadian High Arctic. Arctic, 32(2):165-169.

Servheen, C. 1989. The Status and Conservation of the Bears of the World.  A paper presented at the Eighth International Conference on Bear Research and Management, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, February.

Shields, G. F., and  T. D. Kocher.1991. Phylogenetic relationships of North American ursids based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Evolution, 45(1):218-221.

Slater GJ, Figueirido B, Louis L, Yang P, Van Valkenburgh B. 2010. Biomechanical consequences of rapid evolution in the polar bear lineage. PLoS ONE. 5(11):e13870. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013870.

Smith TG, Aars J. 2015. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) mating during late June on the pack ice of northern Svalbard, Norway. Polar Research. 34(1):25786. doi:10.3402/polar.v34.25786.

Smith, T. G., and B. Sjare. 1990. Predation of belugas and narwhals by polar bears near shore areas of the Canadian High Arctic. Arctic, 43(2) :99-102.

Smith TG, Stirling I. 2019. Predation of harp seals, Pagophilus groenlandicus, by polar bears, Ursus maritimus, in Svalbard. Arctic. 72(2):197–202. doi:10.14430/arctic68186.

Songer M, Atwood TC, Douglas DC, Huang Q, Li R, Pilfold NW, Xu M, Durner GM. 2020. How is climate change affecting polar bears and giant pandas? In: Penteriani V, Melletti M, editors. Bears of the world. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press. p. 303–316.

Stempniewicz L. 2006. Polar bear predatory behaviour toward molting barnacle geese and nesting glaucous gulls on Spitsbergen. Arctic

Stempniewicz L, Kulaszewicz I, Aars J. 2021. Yes, they can: polar bears Ursus maritimus successfully hunt Svalbard reindeer Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. Polar Biol. 44(11):2199–2206. doi:10.1007/s00300-021-02954-w.

Stirling, I. 1974. Midsummer observations on behavior of wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 52, 1191–1198.

Stirling, I. 1977. Adaptations of Weddell and ringed seals to exploit the polar fast ice habitat in the absence or presence of surface predators. G. A. Llano (Ed.) In: Adaptations within Antarctic Ecosystems. Gulf, Houston, TX. pp. 741-748.

Stirling, I. (ed) 1993. Bears: Majestic Creatures of the Wild.  Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale Press.

Stirling, I. 1998. Polar Bears. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Stirling I. 2002. Polar bears and seals in the Eastern Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf: a synthesis of population trends and ecological relationships over three decades. Arctic. 55(5):59–76. doi:10.14430/arctic735.

Stirling I, Archibald WR. 1977. Aspects of predation of seals by polar bears. J Fish Res Bd Can. 34(8):1126–1129. doi:10.1139/f77-169.

Stirling, I. and C. Parkinson. 2006. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic [PDF]. Arctic 59:261-275.

Stirling, I. and A. Derocher 2007. Melting under pressure: the real scoop on climate warming and polar bears [PDF]. The Wildlife Professional. Fall 2007

Stirling I, Derocher AE. 2012. Effects of climate warming on polar bears: a review of the evidence. Glob Change Biol. 18(9):2694–2706. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02753.x.

Stirling I, Ross JE. 2011. Observations of cannibalism by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) on summer and autumn sea ice at Svalbard, Norway. Arctic. 64(4):478–482. doi:10.14430/arctic4147.

Stirling, I. A. Derocher, W. Gough, K. Rode 2008. Response to Dyck et al (2007) on polar bears and climate change in western Hudson Bay. Ecological Complexity 5(3):193-201.

Stirling I, Lunn NJ, Iacozza J (1999) Long-term trends in the population ecology of polar bears in western Hudson Bay in relation to climatic change. Arctic 52:294–306.

Stirling I, Spencer C, Andriashek D. 2016. Behavior and activity budgets of wild breeding polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Mar Mam Sci. 32(1):13–37. doi:10.1111/mms.12291.

Stirling I, Laidre KL, Born EW. 2021. Do wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus) use tools when hunting walruses (Odobenus rosmarus)? Arctic. 74(2):175–187. doi:10.14430/arctic72532.

Stirling I, Laidre KL, Derocher AE, Van Meurs R. 2020. The ecological and behavioral significance of short-term food caching in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Arctic Science. 6(1):41–52. doi:10.1139/as-2019-0008.

Swaisgood, R. and D. Shepherdson 2006. Environmental enrichment as a strategy for mitigating stereotypies in zoo animals: a literature review and metaanalysis.

Tartu S, Bourgeon S, Aars J, Andersen M, Ehrich D, Thiemann GW, Welker JM, Routti H. 2016. Geographical area and life history traits influence diet in an Arctic marine predator. PLoS ONE. 11(5):e0155980. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155980.

Tartu S, Bourgeon S, Aars J, Andersen M, Polder A, Thiemann GW, Welker JM, Routti H. 2017a. Sea ice-associated decline in body condition leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway. Science of The Total Environment. 576:409–419. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.132.

Tartu S, Lille-Langøy R, Størseth TR, Bourgeon S, Brunsvik A, Aars J, Goksøyr A, Jenssen BM, Polder A, Thiemann GW, et al. 2017b. Multiple-stressor effects in an apex predator: combined influence of pollutants and sea ice decline on lipid metabolism in polar bears. Sci Rep. 7(1):16487. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-16820-5.

Taylor, M. K. et al.1991. Observation of a polar bear with rabies. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 27(2):337-339.

Thiemann GW, Iverson SJ, Stirling I. 2008. Polar bear diets and arctic marine food webs: insights from fatty acid analysis. Ecological Monographs. 78(4):591–613. doi:10.1890/07-1050.1.

Travis, J.  1994. Taking a bottom-to-sky 'slice' of the Arctic Ocean. Science, December 23, 226 :1947-1948.

Togunov RR, Derocher AE, Lunn NJ. 2017. Windscapes and olfactory foraging in a large carnivore. Sci Rep. 7(1):46332. doi:10.1038/srep46332.

UNEP. 2019. Species+: Ursus maritimus [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Sep 10].

Van de Velde, F., Omi, I. Stirling, E. Richardson. 2003. Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Denning in the Area of the Simpson Peninsula, Nunavut. Artic 56(2): 191-197.

Ware JV, Rode KD, Robbins CT, Leise T, Weil CR, Jansen HT. 2020. The clock keeps ticking: circadian rhythms of free-ranging polar bears. J Biol Rhythms. 35(2):180–194. doi:10.1177/0748730419900877.

Watts, P. and S. Hansen 1987. Cyclic starvation as a reproductive strategy in the polar bear. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. 57:3-5-318.

Watts, P. D, K. L.  Ferguson, and B. A. Draper. 1991. Energetic output of subadult polar bears (Ursus maritimus): resting, disturbance and locomotion. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A: Comparative Physiology 98(2): 191-193.

Wayne, R., B. Van Valkenburgh, and S.J. O’Brien. 1991. Molecular distance and divergence time in carnivores and primates. Molecular Biology and Evolution 8(3):297-319.

Wechsler, B. 1991. Stereotypies in polar bears. Zoo Biology, 10(2):177-188.

Welch AJ, Bedoya-Reina OC, Carretero-Paulet L, Miller W, Rode KD, Lindqvist C. Polar bears exhibit genome-wide signatures of bioenergetic adaptation to life in the Arctic environment. Genome Biology and Evolution. 2014; DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evu025.

Wemmer, C., M. Von Ebers, and K. Scow.  1976. An analysis of the chuffing vocalization in the Polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Zoology,180:425-439.

Whiteman JP. 2021. Polar bear behavior: morphologic and physiologic adaptations. In: Davis RW, Pagano AM, editors. Ethology and behavioral ecology of sea otters and polar bears. Cham: Springer International Publishing. (Ethology and Behavioral Ecology of Marine Mammals). p. 219–246.

Whiteman JP, Harlow HJ, Durner GM, Anderson-Sprecher R, Albeke SE, Regehr EV, Amstrup SC, Ben-David M. 2015. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings. Science. 349(6245):295–298. doi:10.1126/science.aaa8623.

Whiteman JP, Harlow HJ, Durner GM, Regehr EV, Amstrup SC, Ben-David M. 2018. Phenotypic plasticity and climate change: can polar bears respond to longer Arctic summers with an adaptive fast? Oecologia. 186(2):369–381. doi:10.1007/s00442-017-4023-0.

Whiteman JP, Harlow HJ, Durner GM, Regehr EV, Amstrup SC, Ben-David M. 2019. Heightened immune system function in polar bears using terrestrial habitats. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 92(1):1–11. doi:10.1086/698996.

Wiig Ø. 1998. Survival and Reproductive Rates for Polar Bears at Svalbard. Ursus, 10, 25–32.

Wiig Ø, Amstrup S, Atwood T, Laidre K, Lunn N, Obbard M, Regehr E, Thiemann G. 2015. Ursus maritimus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.2; e.T22823A14871490 [species assessed 2015 Aug 15; page accessed 2019 Feb 19]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T22823A14871490.en.

Wozencraft, W. C. 2005 Order Carnivora. In: Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder, (eds.)  Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 586-590.

Wilson RR, Regehr EV, St. Martin M, Atwood TC, Peacock E, Miller S, Divoky G. 2017. Relative influences of climate change and human activity on the onshore distribution of polar bears. Biological Conservation. 214:288–294. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2017.08.005.

Worthy, D.A. 1990. Nutritional energetics for marine mammals.  In:  L. A. Dierauf, ed. CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine: Health, Disease and Rehabilitation. p. 489-520.

Yee M, Reimer J, Lunn NJ, Togunov RR, Pilfold NJ, McCall AG, Derocher AE. 2017. Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) migration from maternal dens in western Hudson Bay. Arctic. 70(3):319. doi:10.14430/arctic4668.

Yu, L., Q-W. Li, O.S.Ryder, and Y-P. Zhang 2004. Phylogenetic relationships within mammalian order Carnivora indicated by sequences of two nuclear DNA genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 33: 694-705.

Yu, L., Y. Li., O. Ryder, Y. Zhang. 2007. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:198

Zeyl, E. J. Aars, D. Ehrich. L. Bachmann, Ø Wiig. 2009. The mating system of polar bears: a genetic approach. Canadian Journal of Zoology 87:1195-1209.

Zeyl E, Ehrich D, Aars J, Bachmann L, Wiig Ø. 2010. Denning-area fidelity and mitochondrial DNA diversity of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Barents Sea. Can J Zool. 88(12):1139–1148. doi:10.1139/Z10-078.

Additional Internet Resources

SDZWA Library Links