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Red-ruffed Lemur (Varecia rubra) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Andriaholinirina N, Baden A, Blanco M, Chikhi L, Cooke A, Davies N, Dolch R, Donati G, Ganzhorn J, Golden C et al. 2014. Varecia rubra. In. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2014.3. Gland (CH): IUCN.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Borgerson C, Eppley TM, Patel E, Johnson S, Louis EE, Razafindramanana J. 2020. Varecia rubra. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2020.2; e.T22920A115574598 [species assessed 2018 Jul 05; page accessed 2020 Oct 28]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T22920A115574598.en.

Brockman D, Willis M, Karesh W. 1987. Management and husbandry of ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, at the San Diego Zoo. II. Reproduction, pregnancy, parturition, litter size, infant care, and reintroduction of hand-raised infants. Zoo Biology. 6(4):349-363.

Cuozzo F, Yamashita N. 2006. Impact of ecology on the teeth of extant lemurs: a review of dental adaptations, function, and life history. In: Gould L, Sauther M, editors. Lemurs: ecology and adaptation. New York (NY): Springer. p. 67-96.

Eddie C, Keith B, Whipple M, Ferrie G. 2015. Population analysis and breeding and transfer plan. Omaha (NE): Association of Zoos and Aquariums.               

Eppley TM, Verjans E, Donati G. 2011. Coping with low-quality diets: a first account of the feeding ecology of the southern gentle lemur, Hapalemur meridionalis, in the Mandena littoral forest, southeast Madagascar. Primates. 52(1):7-13.

Foerg R. 1982. Reproductive behavior in Varecia variegata. Folia Primatologica. 38:108-121.

Gove P. 1993. Webster's third new international dictionary of the English language, unabridged. In: Gove P, editor. Springfield (MA): Merriam Webster.      

Hekkala E, Rakotondratsima M, Vasey N. 2007. Habitat and distribution of the ruffed lemur, Varecia, north of the Bay of Antongil in north-eastern Madagascar. Primate Conservation. 22:89-95.

Hill O. 1953. Primates: comparative anatomy and taxonomy: Strepsirhini. New York (NY): Interscience Publishers, Inc. p. 798.       

Hovarth J, Weisrock D, Embry S, Fiorentino I, Balhoff J, Kappeler P, Wray G, Willard H, Yoder A. 2008. Development and application of a phylogenomic toolkit: resolving the evolutionary history of Madagascar's lemurs. Genome Research. 18(3):489-499.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System Database (ITIS). 2015. Varecia rubra. [updated 2015 Jan 5; accessed 2014 Feb 12]. ITIS. 2015.         

Mittermeier R, Louis E, Richardson M, Schwitzer C, Langrand O, Rylands A, Hawkins F, Rajaobelina S, Ratsimbazafy J, Rasoloarison R et al. 2010. Lemurs of Madagascar. Arlington (VA): Conservation International.   

Mutschler T. 1999. Folivory in a small-bodied lemur. In: Rakotosamimanana B, Rasamimanana H, Ganzhorn J, Goodman S, editors. New directions in lemur studies. Springer US. p. 221-239.

Pereira M, Seeligson M, Macedonia J. 1988. The behavioral repertoire of the black and white-ruffed lemur, Varecia variegata variegata (primates: lemuridae). Folia Primatologica. 51(1):1-32.

Razafindratsima OH, Martinez BT. 2012. Seed dispersal by red-ruffed lemurs: seed size, viability, and beneficial effect on seedling growth. Ecotropica. 18(1):15-25.             

Razakamaharavo VR, McGuire SM, Vasey N, Louis EE, Brenneman RA. 2010. Genetic architecture of two red-ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) populations of Masoala National Park. Primates. 51(1):53-61.

Richardson J. 1885. A new Malagasy-English dictionary. Antananarivo (MG): The London Missionary Society. 832 p.         

Schilling A. Olfactory communication in prosimians. In: Doyle G, Martin R, editors. The study of prisimian behavior. New York (NY): Academic Press; 1979. p. 461-542.

UNEP. 2020. Species+: Varecia rubra [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2020 Dec 04].

Vasey N. 1997. The cooperative breeding system of Varecia variegata. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 104(Supp 24): 232.

Vasey N. 2000. Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: I. Interspecific patterns. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 112(3):411-431.<411::AID-AJPA10>3.0.CO;2-R

Vasey N. 2002. Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: II. Intraspecific patterns. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 118(2):169-183.

Vasey N. 2003. Varecia, ruffed lemurs. In: Goodman S, Benstead J, editors. The natural history of madagascar. Chicago (IL): The University of Chicago Press. p. 1332-1336.   

Vasey N. 2004. Circadian rhythms in diet and habitat use in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) and white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons). American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

Vasey N. 2005. Activity budgets and activity rhythms in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar: seasonality and reproductive energetics. American Journal of Primatology. 66(1):23-44.

Vasey N. 2006. Impact of seasonality and reproduction on social structure, ranging patterns, and fission-fusion social organization in red ruffed lemurs. In: Gould L, Sauther M, editors. Lemurs: ecology and adaptation. New York (NY): Springer. p. 275-304.

Vasey N. 2007. The breeding system of wild red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra): a preliminary report. Primates. 48(1):41-54.

Vasey N, Tattersall I. 2002. Do ruffed lemurs form a hybrid zone? Distribution and discovery of Varecia, with systematic and conservation implications. American Museum Noviates. 2002(3376):1-26. DOI:<0001:DRLFAH>2.0.CO;2

Whipple M. 2014. International studbook for ruffed lemurs November 2014. St. Louis (MO): Association of Zoos and Aquariums.        

Whipple M. 2014. North American regional studbook for ruffed lemurs: black and white-ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) red-ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). St. Louis (MO): Association of Zoos and Aquariums. 

Yoder A, Yang Z. 2004. Divergence dates for Malagasy lemurs estimated from multiple gene loci: geological and evolutionary context. Molecular Ecology. 13(4):757-773.

Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS). Ver 2.1. 2015. [updated 2015 Feb 25; accessed 2015 Feb 25].        

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