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Short-beaked Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources

Short-beaked Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus)


Aplin K, Dickman C, Salas L, Helgen K. 2016. Tachyglossus aculeatus. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2017.1; e.T41312A21964662 (species assessed 2015 Jun 15; page accessed 2017 Aug 16). <>. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T41312A21964662.en.

Augee ML, Beard LA, Grigg GC, Raisin JK. 1992. Home range of echidnas in the Snowy Mountains. In: Augee ML, editor. Platypus and echidnas. Strawberry Hills (Australia): Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales. p. 225-231.

Augee M, Gooden B, Musser A. 2006. Echidna: extraordinary egg-laying mammal. Collingwood, VIC (Australia): CSIRO Publishing (Australian natural history series).

Barker JM, Cooper CE, Withers PC, Nicol SC. 2016a. Reexamining echidna physiology: the big picture for Tachyglossus aculeatus acanthion. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 89:169–181. doi:10.1086/686716.

Beard LA, Grigg GC, Augee ML. 1992. Reproduction by echidnas in a cold climate. In: Augee ML, editor. Platypus and echidnas. Strawberry Hills (Australia): Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales. p. 93–100.

Belkov K, Hellman L, Cooper DW. 2002. Characterisation of echidna IgM provides insights into the time of divergence of extant mammals. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 26:831–839. doi:10.1016/S0145-305X(02)00030-7.

Bininda-Emonds ORP, Cardillo M, Jones KE, MacPhee RDE, Beck RMD, Grenyer R, Price SA, Vos RA, Gittleman JL, Purvis A. 2007. The delayed rise of present-day mammals. Nature 446:507–512. doi:10.1038/nature05634.

Boisvert M, Grisham J. 1988. Reproduction of the short-nosed echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus at the Oklahoma City Zoo. Int. Zoo Yearb. 27:103–108. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1988.tb03202.x.

Brannian J, Cloak C. 1985. Observations of daily activity patterns in two captive short-nosed echidnas, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Zoo Biol. 4:75–81. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430040109.

Brattstrom BH. 1973. Social and maintenance behavior of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. J. Mammal. 54:50–70.

Brice PH, Grigg GC, Beard LA, Donovan JA. 2002. Heat tolerance of short-beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) in the field. J. Therm. Biol. 27:449–457. doi:10.1016/S0306-4565(02)00015-3.

Caldwell WH. 1887. The embryology of Monotremata and Marsupialia, Part I. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 178:463–486. doi:10.1098/rstb.1887.0016.

Clemente CJ, Cooper CE, Withers PC, Freakley C, Singh S, Terrill P. 2016. The private life of echidnas: using accelerometry and GPS to examine field biomechanics and assess the ecological impact of a widespread, semi-fossorial monotreme. J. Exp. Biol. 219:3271–3283. doi:10.1242/jeb.143867.

Courtney J. The mysterious echidna. Sep 1993. ZOONOOZ, Vol. LIV (No.92); p. 16-19.

Crerar, S. 2016. The baby puggle proves nifflers actually exist: truth is stranger than fiction. BuzzFeed. [accessed 2017 September 15].

Darce K. Zoo leads efforts to map genes of 10,000 animals. San Diego Union Tribune. 2011 May 09, Business section.

Dolan JM. 1998. The mammal collection of the Zoological Society of San Diego: a historical perspective. Part XIV: Tachyglossidae to Vombatidae. Zool. Garten N. F. 68:337-364.

Eldridge DJ, Delgado-Baquerizo M, Woodhouse JN, Neilan BA. 2016. Mammalian engineers drive soil microbial communities and ecosystem functions across a disturbance gradient. Cuddington K, editor. J. Anim. Ecol. 85:1636–1646. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12574.

Eldridge DJ, Mensinga A. 2007. Foraging pits of the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) as small-scale patches in a semi-arid Australian box woodland. Soil Biol. Biochem. 39:1055–1065. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.11.016.

Ferguson A, Turner B. 2013. Reproductive parameters and behaviour of captive short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus acanthion) at Perth Zoo. Aust. Mammal. 35:84. doi:10.1071/AM12022.

Geiser F. 2004. Metabolic rate and body temperature reduction during hibernation and daily torpor. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 66:239–274. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.66.032102.115105.

Gooden BA, Augee ML. 2015. Penetration ability of echidna spines and porcupine quills. Aust. Mammal. 37:23. doi:10.1071/AM14003.

Gould J. 1863. The mammals of Australia, Vol. 1. London (UK): Taylor and Francis. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.112962

Grigg GC, Beard LA, Augee ML. 2004. The evolution of endothermy and its diversity in mammals and birds. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 77:982–997. doi:10.1086/425188.

Harris RL, Davies NW, Nicol SC. 2012. Chemical composition of odorous secretions in the Tasmanian short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus). Chem. Senses 37:819–836. doi:10.1093/chemse/bjs066.

Harris RL, Holland BR, Cameron EZ, Davies NW, Nicol SC. 2014. Chemical signals in the echidna: differences between seasons, sexes, individuals and gland types: sex and seasonal variations in echidna chemical secretions. J. Zool. 293:171–180. doi:10.1111/jzo.12133.

Harris RL, Nicol SC. 2014. Observations of breeding behaviour and possible infanticide in a wild population of Tasmanian echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus). Aust. Mammal. 36:108. doi:10.1071/AM13011.

Hassiotis M, Paxinos G, Ashwell KWS. 2003. The anatomy of the cerebral cortex of the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Intergr. Physiol., 136, 827–850. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03)00166-1

Hulbert A, Beard L, Grigg G. 2010. The possible role of membrane lipids in the exceptionally long life of the short-beaked echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Aust. Zool. 35:154–159. doi:10.7882/AZ.2010.003.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System database (ITIS) [Internet]. [accessed 2017 Aug 15].

Jackson S and Groves C. 2015. Family Tachyglossidae. In: Taxonomy of Australian mammals. Collingwood, VIC (Australia): CSIRO Publishing; c2015. p. 37-41.

Johnston SD, Smith B, Pyne M, Stenzel D, Holt WV. 2007. One‐sided ejaculation of echidna sperm bundles. Am. Nat. 170:E162–E164. doi:10.1086/522847.

Kern CW. Warehouse report. Sep 1949. ZOONOOZ, Vol. XXII (No.9); p. 7.

Morrow G, Andersen NA, Nicol SC. 2009. Reproductive strategies of the short-beaked echidna – a review with new data from a long-term study on the Tasmanian subspecies (Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus). Aust. J. Zool. 57:275. doi:10.1071/ZO09037.

Morrow G, Nicol SC. 2009. Cool sex? Hibernation and reproduction overlap in the echidna. Humphries S, editor. PLoS ONE 4:e6070. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006070.

Morrow GE, Jones SM, Nicol SC. 2016. Interaction of hibernation and male reproductive function in wild Tasmanian echidnas Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus. J. Mammal. 97:852–860. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyw013.

Morrow GE, Jones SM, Nicol SC. 2017. Frozen embryos? Torpor during pregnancy in the Tasmanian short-beaked echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 244:139–145. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.11.006.

Morrow GE, Nicol SC. 2012. Maternal care in the Tasmanian echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus). Aust. J. Zool. 60:289. doi:10.1071/ZO12066.

Nicol SC. 2015a. Family Tachyglossidae (echidnas). In: Handbook of the mammals of the world: marsupials and monotremes. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions. (Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA, editors). p. 34–53.

Nicol SC. 2015b. Short-beaked echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus. In: Handbook of the mammals of the world: marsupials and monotremes. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions. (Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA, editors). p. 56.

Nicol SC. 2015c. Genus Zaglossus. In: Handbook of the mammals of the world: marsupials and monotremes. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions. (Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA, editors). p. 55–56.

Nicol SC. 2017. Energy homeostasis in monotremes. Front Neurosci-Switz 11, 1-17. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00195

Nicol SC, Andersen NA. 2002. The timing of hibernation in Tasmanian echidnas: why do they do it when they do? Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B Biochem. Mol. Biol. 131:603–611. doi:10.1016/S1096-4959(02)00018-0.

Nicol SC, Andersen NA. 2007a. Cooling rates and body temperature regulation of hibernating echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus). J. Exp. Biol. 210:586–592. doi:10.1242/jeb.02701.

Nicol SC, Andersen NA. 2007b. The life history of an egg-laying mammal, the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Ecoscience 14:275. doi:10.2980/1195-6860(2007)14[275:TLHOAE]2.0.CO;2.

Nicol SC, Andersen NA, Morrow GE, Harris RL. 2018. Spurs, sexual dimorphism and reproductive maturity in Tasmanian echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus). Aust. Mammal. doi:10.1071/AM18005.

Nicol SC, Morrow GE. 2012. Sex and seasonality: reproduction in the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). In Living in a Seasonal World: Thermoregulatory and Metabolic Adaptations. Heidelburg (Germany): Springer. (Ruf T, Bieber C, Arnold W, Millesi E, editors). p. 143-153.

Nicol SC, Vanpé C, Sprent J, Morrow G, Andersen NA. 2011. Spatial ecology of a ubiquitous Australian anteater, the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). J. Mammal. 92:101–110. doi:10.1644/09-MAMM-A-398.1.

Nicol SC, Vedel-Smith C, Andersen NA. 2004. Behaviour, body temperature, and hibernation in Tasmanian echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus). In: Life in the cold: evolution, mechanisms, adaptation and application. Twelfth International Hibernation Symposium. Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Fairbanks (AK) University of Alaska Fairbanks; c2004. p. 377–388.

Nowack J, Cooper CE, Geiser F. 2016. Cool echidnas survive the fire. Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 283:20160382. doi:10.1098/rspb.2016.0382.

Pettigrew JD. 1999. Electroreception in monotremes. J. Exp. Biol. 202:1447-1454.

Phillips MJ, Bennett TH, Lee MSY. 2009. Molecules, morphology, and ecology indicate a recent, amphibious ancestry for echidnas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106:17089–17094. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904649106.

Pierce F, Mattiske J, Menkhorst P. 2007. A probably case of twins in the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus (Tachyglossidae: Montremata), with observations on suckling of young after their emergence from the nursery burrow. Victorian Naturalist 124:332-340.;dn=659408887660595;res=IELHSS

Rismiller PD. 1999. The echidna: Australia’s enigma. Fairfield (CT): Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc.

Rismiller PD, McKelvey MW. 2000. Frequency of breeding and recruitment in the short-beaked echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. J. Mammal. 81:1–17. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2000)081<0001:FOBARI>2.0.CO;2

Rismiller PD, McKelvey MW. 2003. Body mass, age and sexual maturity in short-beaked echidnas, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 136:851–865. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03)00225-3.

Rismiller PD, McKelvey MW. 2009. Activity and behaviour of lactating echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus multiaculeatus) from hatching of egg to weaning of young. Aust. J. Zool. 57:265–273. doi:10.1071/ZO09031.

Ruf T, Geiser F. 2015. Daily torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals: daily torpor and hibernation. Biol. Rev. 90:891–926. doi:10.1111/brv.12137.

Russel F, Burke D. 2016. Conditional same/different concept learning in the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 105(1): 133-154. doi:10.1002/jeab.185

Scott P. Enigmatic echidnas. Mar-Apr 2013. ZOONOOZ, Vol. LXXXVI (No. 2); p. 12-13.

Smith AP, Wellham GS, Green SW. 1989. Seasonal foraging activity and microhabitat selection by echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) on the New England Tablelands. Austral Ecol. 14:457–466. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.1989.tb01455.x.

Sprent J, Nicol SC. 2012. Influence of habitat on home-range size in the short-beaked echidna. Aust. J. Zool. 60:46. doi:10.1071/ZO11098.

Sprent JA, Nicol SC. 2016. Diet of the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) in the Tasmanian Southern Midlands. Aust. Mammal. 38:188. doi:10.1071/AM15023.

Stannard HJ, Bekkers JM, Old JM, McAllan BM, Shaw ME. 2017. Digestibility of a new diet for captive short-beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus): captive short-beaked echidna nutrition. Zoo Biol. 36:56–61. doi:10.1002/zoo.21347.

Stephenson LR. 2015a. The San Diego Zoo: the founding era 1916-1953. San Diego (CA): The Zoological Society of San Diego.

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Van Wilgenburg E, Elgar MA. 2007. Colony characteristics influence the risk of nest predation of a polydomous ant by a monotreme. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 92:1–8. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00868.x.

Wallage A, Clarke L, Thomas L, Pyne M, Beard L, Ferguson A, Lisle A, Johnston S. 2015. Advances in the captive breeding and reproductive biology of the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Aust. J. Zool. 63:181. doi:10.1071/ZO14069.

Waugh CA. 2006. Respiration by buried echidnas Tachyglossus aculeatus. J. Exp. Biol. 209:938–944. doi:10.1242/jeb.02063.

Zahed R. 2010. A real hoot! Animation 24(7):10-12.

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Spines of a short-beaked echidna

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