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Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Berger CA, Brooks DM. 2004. Toco Toucan (toucans). In: Grzimek’s animal life encyclopedia (Hutchins M, Evans AV, Jackson JA, Kleiman DG, Murphy JB, Thoney D, et al., editors). Vol. 10: Birds III (2nd edition) [accessed 2019 Jan 23]. Detroit (MI): Gale; c2004; p. 125-135.

BirdLife International. 2017. Ramphastos toco. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.2; e.T22682164A113557535 [species assessed 2016 Oct 01; page accessed 2019 Jan 23]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22682164A113557535.en.

Fecchio RS, Seki Y, Bodde SG, Gomes MS, Kolososki J, Rossi JL, Gioso MA, Meyers MA. 2010. Mechanical behavior of prosthesis in toucan beak (Ramphastos toco). Mater Sci Eng C. 30(3):460–464. doi:10.1016/j.msec.2010.01.001.

Gill F, Donsker D, editors. 2019. IOC world bird list, master list. 9.1. [updated 20 Jan 2019; accessed 22 Jan 2019]. doi:10.14344/IOC.ML.9.1.

Hughes AL. 2014. Evolution of bill size in relation to body size in toucans and hornbills (Aves: Piciformes and Bucerotiformes). Zoologia (Curitiba). 31(3):256–263. doi:10.1590/S1984-46702014000300007 [html].

Pizo MA, Donatti CI, Guedes NMR, Galetti M. 2008. Conservation puzzle: Endangered hyacinth macaw depends on its nest predator for reproduction. Biol Conserv. 141(3):792–796. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.12.023.

Reynolds M. 2017. Toco Toucan: species fact sheet. Silver Spring (MD): Avian Scientific Advisory Group. [accessed 2019 Jan 23].

Short LL, Horne JFM. 2001. Toco Toucan Ramphastos toco Muller 1776. In: Toucans, barbets and honeyguides: Ramphastidae, Capitonidae and Indicatoridae (Perrins CM, Bock WJ, Kikkawa J, editors). New York (NY): Oxford University Press. p. 419–422.

Short LL, Sharpe C. 2014. Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco). In: Handbook of the birds of the world alive (del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J, Christie DA, de Juana E, editors.). Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions. [species account revised Sep 2014; accessed 2019 Jan 22].

Tattersall GJ, Andrade DV, Abe AS. 2009. Heat exchange from the toucan bill reveals a controllable vascular thermal radiator. Science. 325(5939):468–470. doi:10.1126/science.1175553.

UNEP. 2019. Species+: Ramphastos toco [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Feb 21].

Additional Internet Resources

Toucan Chick

Toco Toucan chick at San Diego Zoo

Toco Toucan chick at the San Diego Zoo.

Image credit: San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

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