Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)
Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.
Describer (Date): Linnaeus 1758
Species: Ursus arctos
Head/Body Length (Males & Females):
Shoulder Height: up to 1.5 m (5 ft)
Tail Length: 60-200 mm (2-8 in)
Pelage: Pale tan, blond, gold, many shades of brown to black, gray or silver; grizzly's guard hairs pale at tips.
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Range: Europe, Middle East, Asia, northwestern U.S., western Canada
Habitat: Widest variety of habitats of any bear species; dry asian steppes, temperate forests; sea level to 5,000 m (16,404 ft)
IUCN Status: Least Concern (2016 assessment)
Population in Wild: More than 200,000
Locomotion: Normal gait - slow shuffle; walk 5.5-6 km/hr; gallop 56 km/hr (35 mp/h)
Activity Cycle: Diurnal in North America (but active day and night when food scarce); largely nocturnal in Europe; in cold climates undergo winter dormancy.
Social Groups: Lasting bonds only between female and young.
Diet: Wide variety of plants and animals; diet more carnivorous than that of American and Asiatic black bears.
Predators: Mainly humans; rare attacks in Siberia by tigers.
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
Sexual: Female - 3.5 yrs; first cubs 4-8 yrs; Male - about 5.5 yrs.
Gestation: 6-7 months
Litter Size: 2 - 3 common; up to 4
Birth weight: 400-500 g (14-18 oz)
Age at Weaning: 1.5-2.5 years
Typical Life Expectancy:
© 2010-2019 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. Updated 2015. Minor updates 2019.
How to cite: Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) Fact Sheet. c2010-2019. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ brownbear.
(Note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Jan 15)
Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org.