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Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Agnarsson, I., M. Kuntner, L. May-Collado 2010. Dogs, cats, and kin: A molecular species-level phylogeny of Carnivora. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54:726-745.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Banks, M., L.S. Torraca, A. G. Greenwood, D. C. Taylor 2003. Aujeszky's disease in captive bears. The Veterinary Record 145(13):362-365.

Bellemain, E., J. E. Swenson, D. Tallmon, S. Brunberg, and P. Taberlet. 2005. Estimating population size of elusive animals with DNA from hunter-collected feces: four methods for brown bears. Conservation Biology 19:150-161.

Bonn, C. N. Caudy, M. de Dieuleveult, P. Fosse, M. Philippe, F. Maksud, E. Bernaud-Colomb, E. Bouzaid. R. Kefi, C. Laugier et al 2008. Deciphering the complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of the extinct cave bear in the Paleolithic painted cave of Chauvet. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105(45): 17447-17452.

Brown, D. E. 1985. The grizzly in the southwest. Documentary of an extinction. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

Clark, J. D., D. Huber, and C. Servheen. 2002. Reintroducing bears: lessons and challenges. Ursus 13:153-163.

Craighead, F. 1979. Track of the Grizzly. Sierra Club Books. San Francisco.

Craighead, J. J. Summner, J. Mitchell 1995. The Grizzly bears of Yellowstone. Island Press Washington D.C., Covelo, California.

Davis, M. 1950. Hybrids of the polar and Kodiak bear. Journal of Mammalogy 31:449-4 50.

Gambel, W. 2006. Atherosclerosis: The carbonic anhydrase, carbon dioxide, calcium concerted theory. Journal of Theoretical Biology 239(1):16-21.

Garshelis, D.L. 2009. Family Ursidae (Bears) In: Mittermeier, R.A. and D.E. Wilson (Eds) Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol 1. Carnivores. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Gippoliti S. 2016. Questioning current practice in brown bear, Ursus arctos, conservation in Europe that undervalues taxonomy. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation. 39(2):199–205. doi:10.32800/abc.2016.39.0199.
Gordon, K. R. 1977. Molar measurements as a taxonomic tool in Ursus. Journal of Mammalogy 58:247-128.

Hedrick, P. and L. Waits 2005. What ancient DNA tells us. Heredity 94:463-464.

Herrero, S. 1985. Bear Attacks: Their Causes and Avoidance. Lyons & Burford, Publishers. New York.

Herrero, S. 1994. The Canadian national parks and grizzly bear ecosystems: the need for interagency management. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 9:7-21

Hilderbrand, G.V., S.G. Jenkins, C.C. Schwartz, T.A. Hanley and C.T. Robbins 1999a. Effect of seasonal differences in dietary meat intake on changes in body mass and composition in wild and captive brown bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1623-1630.

Hilderbrand, G.V., C.C. Schwartz, C.T. Robbins, M.E. Jacoby, T.A. Hanley, S.M. Arthur and C.W. Servheen 1999b. The importance of meat, particularly salmon, to body size, population productivity, and conservation of North American brown bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:132–138.

Huber, D. and H. Roth 1997. Denning of brown bears in Croatia. International Conference Bear Research and Management 9(2):79-83.

Huber, D. 2010. Rehabilitation and reintroduction of captive-reared bears: feasibility and methodology for European brown bears Ursus arctos. International Zoo Yearbook 44:47-54

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) 2010.Downloaded April 2010

Itoh, K. K. Ide, Y. Kojima, M. Terada 2010. Hibernational exhibit for Japanese black bear Ursus thibetanus japonicus at Ueno Zoological Gardens. International Zoo Yearbook 44:55-64.

Kitchner, A. C. 2004. The problem of old bears in zoo. International Zoo News 51:283-293.

Korablev, P.An. E. Chapman, V.S. Pazhetnov and V. V. Bologov 1999. Odontological characteristics of European brown bears from the Central Forest Biosphere Nature Reserve. Russian Journal of Ecology 31(3): 1067-4136.

Krause, J. T. Unger, A. Nocon, A. S. Malaspinas S.O. Kolokotronis, et al 2008. Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Evolutionary Biology 8:220

Kurt, F. 1990. Large Bears. In: Grizimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. McGraw-Hill Publishing. New York, San Francisco. pp. 477-501.

Leonard, J. , R. Wayne, A. Cooper 2000. Population genetics of Ice Age brown bears. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 97(4):1651-1654.

Lindqvist, Charlotte, Stephan C. Schuster, Yazhou Sun, Sandra L. Talbot, Ji Qi, Aakrosh Ratan, Lynn P. Tomsho, Lindsay Kasson, Eve Zeyl, Jon Aars, Webb Miller, Ólafur Ingólfsson, Lutz Bachmann, and Øystein Wiig. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 107:5053. PNAS published online before print March 1, 2010.

Mattson, D. J. and T. Merrill 2002. Extirpations of Grizzly Bears in the contiguous United States, 1850-2000. Conservation Biology 16(4):1123-1136.

McLellan, B. N. and F. Hovey. 2001. Natal dispersal of grizzly bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:838–844.

McLellan, B.N., M.F. Proctor, D. Huber, and S. Michel. 2017. Ursus arctos brown bear. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.2; e.T41688A121229971 [species assessed 2016 Feb 02; page accessed 2019 Feb 26]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T41688A121229971.en.

McLellan, B., N. C. Servhenn, D. Huber 2008. Ursus arctos. IUCN RedList of Threatened Specie. Downloaded April 2010

McLoughlin, P., H. Cluff, F. Messier 2002. Denning ecology of barren-ground grizzly bears in the central Arctic. Journal of Mammalogy 83(1):188-198.

Morner, T., H. Ericksson, C. Brojer, K. Nilsson, H. Uhlhorn et al 2005. Diseases and mortality in free-ranging brown bear (Ursus arctos), Gray wolf (Canis lupus), and wolverine (Gulo gulo) in Sweden.

Mowat, G. and D. Heard 2006. Major components of grizzly bear diet across North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84:473-489.

Murie, A. 1985. The Grizzlys of Mt. McKinley. University of Washington Press, Seattle and also National Park Service. Scientific Monograph Series 14. Downloaded 21 April 2010

Pasitschniak-Arts, M. 1993. Ursus arctos. Mammalian Species 439. pp. 1-10. American Society of Mammalogists

Pasitschniak-Arts, M., and F. Messier. 2000. Brown (grizzly) and polar bears. Pp. 409-428 in S. Demarais and P.R. Krausman (eds). Ecology and management of large mammals in North America. Prentice-Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. 778pp

Podruzny, S. D. Reinhart, D. Mattson 1999. Fire, Red Squirrels, Whitebark Pine, and Yellowstone Grizzly Bears. Ursus 11:131-138.

Podruzny, S. S. Cherry, C. Schwartz, L. Landenburger 2002. Grizzly bear denning and potential conflict areas in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Ursus 13:19-28.

Proctor, M. F., B. N. McLellan, C. Strobeck and R. M. R. Barclay. 2005. Genetic analysis reveals demographic fragmentation of grizzly bears yielding vulnerably small populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 272:2409-2416.

Ramsay, E. C. 2003. Ursidae and Hyanidae. In: Fowler, M. (Ed.) Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Fifth Edition. W.B. Saunders Co.

Rode, K. D. , S. D. Farley, C. T. Robbins 2006. Sexual dimprphism, reproductive strategy and human activities determine resource use by Brown Bears. Ecology 87(10):2636-2646.

Sacco, T. . and B. Van Valkenburgh 2004. Ecomorphological indicators of feeding behaviour in the bears (Carnivora: Ursidae). Journal of Zoology, London 263:41-54.

Schoen, J. 1999. Brown Bears of Kenai: A Population at Risk. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Bulletin 24(2);14-15. Downloaded April 2010.

Schwartz, C.C., S.D. Miller, and M.A. Haroldson. 2003. Grizzly bear. In: G.A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson, and J. A. Chapman (Eds) Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and conservation. Second edition. pp: 556-586. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Servheen, C. 1999. The trade in bears and bear parts. In: Servheen, C. S. Herrero and B. Peyton (Eds.) Bears: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN Bear Specialist Group. IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Groups. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK.

Swenson, J. N. Gerstl, B. Dahle, A. Zedrosser 2006. Action Plan for the conservation of the Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) in Europe [PDF]. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) Nature and Environment, No. 1114. Council of Europe Publishing. On-line downloaded April 2010.

UNEP. 2019. Ursus arctos. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Oct 15].

UNEP. 2020. Ursus arctos. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]; [accessed 2020 Nov 24].

U.S. Federal Register 1975. Grizzly Bear. Federal Register 40 31734-31736.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2007. Final Conservation Strategy for the Grizzly Bear in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

U.S. Federal Register 2007. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; designating the greater Yellowstone ecosystem population of grizzly bears as a distinct population segment; removing the Yellowstone distinct population segment of grizzly bears from the federal list of endangered and threatened wildlife. United States Federal Register. 70: 69854-69884.

U.S. Federal Register 2010. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Protections for the Grizzly Bear in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in Compliance With Court Order. Vol. 75(58) 14496. Friday, March 26, 2010.

Wallach, J. 1978. Carnivores (Carnivora): Ursidae. In: Fowler, M. (Ed.) Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. 1st Edition. W.B. Saunders Co.

Weber, P. 1986. Observations of Brown Bear movement in the Hargita Mountains, Romania. In: Bears: Their Biology and Management Vol 7. A Selection of Papers from the Seventh International Conference on Bear Research and Management, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA and Plitvice Lakes, Yugoslavia, 1986 (1987) pp. 19-21. Published by International Association of Bear Research and Management.

Weigl, R. 2005. Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48. Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 111-112.

White, Don, Jr., Katherine C. Kendall, and Harold D. Picton.1998. Grizzly bear feeding activity at alpine army cutworm moth aggregation sites in northwest Montana. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:(2)221-227.

Xu, a. C. Z. G. Jiang, C. W. Li, J. X. Guo, G. S. Wu and P. Cai 2006. Summer food habits of brown bears in Kekexili Nature reserve, Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. Ursus 17:132-137.

Yu, Li, Y.W. Li, O. Ryder, Y.P Zhang 2007. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation. Evolutionary Biology.

Zager, P. and J. Beecham 2006. The role of American black bears and brown bears as predators on ungulates in North America. Ursus 17(2):95-108

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