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Extinct Dwarf Pronghorn (Capromeryx minor) Fact Sheet: Summary

Extinct Dwarf Pronghorn (Capromeryx minor)

Archived Content

Disclaimer: Fact sheets on prehistoric (extinct) species contain archived content and are no longer being updated. At the time of publication, these pages summarized the best available science. However, some content may become outdated as scientists report new discoveries.

Extinct Dwarf Pronghorn (Capromeryx minor) Fact Sheet

Extinct Dwarf Pronghorn

Extinct dwarf pronghorn, Capromeryx minor

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

Taxonomy Physical Characteristics

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Artiodactyla* (even-toed hoofed animals: includes pigs, sheep goats, cattle, deer)

Family: Antilocapridae (includes only one living member - the pronghorn, Antilocacapra americana and many fossil taxa)

Genus: Capromeryx                        

Species: Capromeryx minor

Body Weight
estimated 10 kg (22 lb)

Shoulder Height
60 cm (24 in); similar in size to African gazelle

Rearward tine only 10 cm (3.9 in); front tine much shorter


Distribution & Status Behavior & Ecology

California, Texas, New Mexico

Grassy plains with clusters of trees and shrubs; open grassy uplands

Extinct; it lived between about 300,000 and 11,000 years ago


Like modern pronghorn, highly adapted for running; extant Pronghorn are the fastest animal in North America (second only to the cheetah)

Social Groups
Groups size not well understood. May have lived in small or very large groups, similar to modern gazelle and Pronghorn.

Browsing and grazing lifestyle

Reproduction & Development Species Highlights

Life stages
Little known; may have had similarities to modern pronghorn.

Feature Facts

  • Very small ungulate, only about 10 kg (or 20 lbs)
  • Long limbs for fast running
  • Sought refuge under trees and in tall vegetation
  • Was prey to many animals

About This Fact Sheet

© 2009 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance


How to cite: Extinct Dwarf Pronghorn (Capromeryx minor) Fact Sheet. c2009. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. extinctdwarfpronghorn
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Sep 10)


Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to

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