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Extinct Dwarf Pronghorn (Capromeryx minor) Fact Sheet: Physical Characteristics

Extinct Dwarf Pronghorn (Capromeryx minor)

How Do We Know This?

Careful study of fossil bone or tooth anatomy yields much
exact information about placement and strength of muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves,
and blood vessels. In rare cases, skin and hair impressions or actual skin or hair is preserved.
Body weight is more difficult to gauge because fat leaves no impression on the skeleton.

Physical Characteristics

AttributeDwarf Pronghorn
Estimated Body Weight
estimated 10 kg (22 lb) (Murray 2006)
Shoulder Height

60 cm (24 in); similar in size to African gazelle (Gazella) (Murray 2006)


Two horns are each forked with two prongs as in modern Pronghorn;
larger rear-ward tine only 10 cm.(3.9 in) with the front tine much shorter

General Appearance

General description

  • A very small, slender, gazelle-like ungulate with two-tined horn cores.


  • High crowned (hypsodont) teeth adapted for an abrasive diet.
  • Lower third molar lacks a fourth lobe. (Murray 2006)
  • No upper incisor (Janis & Manning)


  • Unknown

Sexual Dimorphism

  • Yes, two sexes distinct in fossil populations; males larger. (Janis & Manning 1998)

Other Physical and Physiological Characteristics

  • Long limbs modified for fast running.

Page Citations

Janis & Manning (1998)
Murray (2006)

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