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Forest Buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources

Forest Buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus)


Allen, G.M. 1939. A checklist of African mammals. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 83:1-763.

Baillie, J., and B. Groombridge. 1996. 1996 IUCN red list of threatened animals. Gland, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

Best, A.A. and M.W.G. Raw. 1975. Rowland Ward's records of big game, XVIth edition (Africa). London: Rowland Ward.

Blancou, L. 1958. The African buffaloes. Animal Kingdom, 61:56-61.

Castelló JR. 2016. Cape buffalo Syncerus caffer. Bovids of the world: antelopes, gazelles, cattle, goats, sheep, and relatives. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press. p. 610–611.

Chilvers, B. 1992. Buffalo in South Africa, to cull or not to cull? African Wildlife, 46:12-15.

Delany, M.J., and D.C.D. Happold. 1979. Ecology of African land mammals. London: Longman.

Dolan, J.M. Jr., and L.E. Killmar. 1987. The mammal collection of the Zoological Society of San Diego, a historical perspective. Part I: Antilopinae to Bovinae. Der Zoologische Garten, 57:116-166.

East, R. 1998. African antelope database 1998. Gland, IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group.

Eniang EA, Ebin CO, Nchor AA, Agba GI, Gideon IK, Amori G, Luiselli L. 2017. Distribution and status of the African forest buffalo Syncerus caffer nanus in south-eastern Nigeria. Oryx. 51(03):538–541. doi:10.1017/S0030605315001507.

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Fowler, M.E. and R.E. Miller, eds. 1999. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine : Current Therapy 4. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.

Gingerich, C. 1998. 1998 North American regional studbook, Cape buffalo Syncerus caffer. Denver: Denver Zoological Gardens.

Gotch, A.F. 1995. Latin names explained. London: Blandford Press.

Grimsdell, J.J.R. 1973a. Reproduction in the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in western Uganda. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement, 19:303-318.

Grimsdell, J.J.R. 1973b. Age determination of the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer Sparrman. East African Wildlife Journal, 11:31-53.

Griner, L.A. 1983. Pathology of Zoo Animals. San Diego: Zoological Society of San Diego.

Grubb, P. 1972. Variation and incipient speciation in the African buffalo. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde, 37:121-144.

Haltenorth, T. and H. Diller. 1980. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Africa Including Madagascar. London: Collins.

Happold, D.C.D. 1987. The Mammals of Nigeria. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hayssen, V., A. van Tienhoven, and A. van Tienhoven. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Hofmann, R.R. 1973. The ruminant stomach. Stomach structure and feeding habits of East African game ruminants. East African Monographs in Biology, 2:1-354.

IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2008. Syncerus caffer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T21251A9260904. Accessed 2017 Feb 15.

International Species Information System. 1997. ISIS mammal abstract as of 31 December 1997. Apple Valley, International Species Information System.

IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2019. African buffalo Syncerus caffer. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019.1; e.T21251A50195031 [species assessed 2018 Feb 24; page accessed 2019 Apr 10]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T21251A50195031.en.

Jones, M.L. 1993. Longevity of ungulates in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook, 32:159-169.

Jones, M.L. 1999. A brief history of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in captivity. Zoological Society of San Diego: unpublished report.

Kingdon, J. 1982. East African Mammals : an Atlas of Evolution in Africa, Volume III Part C (Bovids). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. San Diego, Academic Press.

Kleiman, D.G, M.E. Allen, K.V. Thompson, and S. Lumpkin, eds. 1996. Wild Mammals in Captivity : Principles and Techniques. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Maglio, V.J. and H.B.S. Cooke, eds. 1978. Evolution of African Mammals Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Mahaney, W.C. and R.G.V. Hancock. 1990. Geochemical analysis of African buffalo geophagic sites and dung on Mount Kenya, East Africa. Mammalia 54:25-32.

McKenna, M.C. and S.K. Bell. 1997. Classification of mammals above the species level, New York: Columbia University Press.

Meester, J. and H.W. Setzer, eds. 1971. The Mammals of Africa : an Identification Manual Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Mloszewski, M.J. 1983. The Behavior and Ecology of the African Buffalo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Modha, K.L. and A. Field. 1974. A record of twins in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer (Sparrman). East African Wildlife Journal, 12:319.

Nowak, R.M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fifth Edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Pienaar, U.V. 1969. Observations on developmental biology, growth and some aspects of the population ecology of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer Sparrman) in the Kruger National Park. Koedoe, 12:29-52.

Prins, H.H.T. 1996. Ecology and Behaviour of the African Buffalo. London: Chapman & Hall.

Prins, H.H.T. and G.R. Lason. 1989. Dangerous lions and nonchalant buffalo. Behaviour, 108:262-296.

Schaller, G.B. 1972. The Serengeti Lion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Shoemaker, A.H. (Chair, Mammal Standards Task Force). 1997. AZA's minimum husbandry guidelines for mammals. Bethesda, American Zoo and Aquarium Association.

Sinclair, A.R.E. 1977. The African buffalo. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Smithers, R.H.N. 1983. The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.

Smitz N, Van Hooft P, Heller R, Cornélis D, Chardonnet P, Kraus R, Greyling B, Crooijmans R, Groenen M, Michaux J. 2016. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification and characterization in a non-model organism, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), using next generation sequencing. Mammalian Biology. 81(6):595–603. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2016.07.047.

Taylor, R.D. 1988. Age determination of the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer (Sparrman) in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology, 26:207-220.

Taylor, R.D. 1989. Buffalo and their food resources: the exploitation of Kariba lakeshore pastures. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 61:51-71.

UNEP. 2019. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Jun 11].

Wall, D.A., S.K. Davis, and B.M. Read. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the subfamily Bovinae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) based on ribosomal DNA. Journal of Mammalogy 73:262-275.

Wijnstekers, W. 1995. The Evolution of CITES : a Reference to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, fourth edition. Chatelaine-Geneva, CITES Secretariat.

Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA, editors. Handbook of the mammals of the world, volume 2. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions; c2011. Forest Buffalo Syncerus nanus, Hoofed Mammals; p. 587-588.

Wilson, D.E. and D.M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World : a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Additional Internet Resources

Forest Buffalo

Forest Buffalo

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