Class: Mammalia (Linnaeus, 1758) - mammals
Order: Artiodactyla* (Owen, 1848) - even-toed hoofed animals (includes pigs, sheep goats, cattle, deer)
Family: Bovidae (Gray, 1821) - antelopes, cattle, goats, sheep, bovids
Genus: Syncerus (Hodgson, 1847)
Species: Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779) - African buffalo, Cape buffalo
Subspecies: Syncerus caffer nanus (Boddaert, 1785) - forest buffalo
Describer (Date): A. Sparrman (1779). "A reference to the African buffalo." Kongl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. (Stockholm), 40:79.
*New anatomical and DNA evidence on the relationship between Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates) and Cetacea (whales and dolphins) recently led to a merging of the two orders into a new group, Cetartiodactyla (Montgelard, 1997; reviewed in Kulemzina, 2009). As of October 2012, experts had not agreed on whether to define Cetartiodactyla as an official taxonomic order that would replace Artiodactyla and Cetacea. Some continue to list the forest buffalo in the order Artiodactyla (Franklin, 2011) or use the term Cetartiodactyla without defining it as an order (IUCN, 2008).
Kingdon (1982, 1997)
Maglio & Cooke (1978)
(McKenna & Bell (1997)
Meester & Setzer (1971)
Wilson & Reeder (1993)